Topic:Select one of the military cyber defense missions below and describe their mission1. US Cyber Command2. NATO Cyberdefence Command3. PRC, PLA Unit 61398 & 61486
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a sentence of an article 5 of the Washington treaty. As per NATO, it hold the words as NATO Cyberdefence Command – “The parties agrees that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.”
As a part of this treaty, NATO has taken many difficult decisions and supported their alliance countries. This was one of the most successful strategic alliance of the time. As it said, NATO stands out in its mission from Cold War to Falling of Berlin Wall and from 9/11 attack to Afghanistan deployment. However, as a true defense mission of NATO, it was Estonia mission.
In April 2007, NATO’s new alliance Estonia, who is Europe’s one of the most wired states with majority of citizens using online voting and banking was under DOS – Denial Of Service attack. This attack was wide spread to about seventy-five countries, Estonia pointed out Russia as a culprit. As a member of NATO, Estonian foreign minister asked help to NATO as massive cyberattack compromised its security. In defense, NATO, considered the request as a “Cyberwar” but did not fully agreed as on Article 5. As per article, no one was dead nor anything was destroyed or damaged. NATO handled this with patience and waited for few weeks to take any stands against Russia. Instead, NATO sent their technical experts to help Estonia in unblocking its services from the attack. This was also realized by Estonian authorities that this was not an act of war.
As in old laws, war was an act of aggression as a “use of force against the territorial integrity of a state” but cyberattack was not a physical force, take place in on land nor involves any states. Old laws were challenges to NATO as how these laws apply to cyber world. Therefore, after the incident on Estonia, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence commissioned 20 law professors to examine the laws that can be applied to cyber world. But NATO’s new manual, which contained ideas on everything from what self defense might mean in the cyber world to a controversial argument, was not at a legal standing. Even, NATO’s man members were not so quick to adopt it. Therefore, NATO adopted the way to apply existing laws’ basic principles to cyber world.
The actual challenge was the greyed out area like denial-of-service attack. During that, Estonia asked NATO for help by declaring war as its sovereignty had been violated, which would have initiated the collective self-defense article of the NATO treaty, in the virtual world but not in the real world. Here, in the real world, these seemingly new forms of attack have parallels to guide us. In that time, such interruptions like postal, telegraphic, radio and other means of communication were not mean to constitute war. Therefore, in the case of Estonia, it was more like a cyber-riot than military attack. And NATO did a wise job as a true defense.