TITLE: 1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY 1.2.1 Background of




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This study is design to
research on how the Public Relations Practitioner of Cadbury handle its crisis
which intersects with religion and
company reputation. It will study on how
effectiveness is Cadbury respond to the public in the used of crisis communication
management in resolving crisis though social media.



1.2.1 Background of Cadbury

Cadbury operates in the global
confectionary market, whereby it is known as a large, growing, and attractive
dynamics market. The purpose of Cadbury is being the world’s biggest and best
confectionary company. Besides, Cadbury vision into action is that governing
objective to deliver superior shareowner returns, and priorities to growth,
efficiency capability assured. Cadbury is the largest global confectionary
supplier in which it is with 9.9% of global market share.

1.2.2. Cadbury and Pig DNA Crisis

February 2014 routine tests by Malaysia’s Ministry of Health found porcine
(pig) DNA in two locally-made Cadbury products – Dairy Milk Hazelnut and Dairy
Milk Roasted Almond (Kok Blok, 2014).

late May a copy of the report was unofficially posted on social media sites and
rumours began to spread in Malaysia, particularly on Facebook, that Cadbury
chocolate may not be halal (see chronology table). In line with the basic
processes of issue management, Cadbury promptly stated on its Facebook page
that it was aware of the rumour and stressed its position that all locally-made
products are halal certified by JAKIM.

is taken with all the ingredients and production process,” the company wrote.
“We follow rigorous processes in making our chocolate to maintain our
certification” (Cadbury, 2014a). Immediately, the issue triggered hundreds of
responses, overwhelmingly negative. *


Social Media& News Article – Facebook, Twitter, The Star, The MalayMail
Online, The Guardian, Reuters

media is becoming such an essential part of business operations that its use is
now common for product launches, developing consumer loyalty and sharing news
(Walaski, 2013).





According to the Multimedia and Communications
Ministry (MCMC), Malaysians spend an average of 12 hours a day on the internet.
In this, Malaysia also has a broadband penetration of 72.2% with active
internet users surpassing 19 million users with 98% of them using social media
to seek for information and entertainment purpose.


crisis can be defined as a situation which has undesirable results or outcome
for an organization. As in the case of crisis, information resources are not
usually available easily, there is pressure to respond towards the particular
stressful situation and stakeholders of the organizations as such customers,
vendors, employees, or media relevant information.  Hence, communication approaches followed by
Cadbury during periods in which the company were handing a crisis is very
significant towards the company reputation that intersects with religion

Fearn-Banks (2007) argued that crisis
communication is the communication which it takes between an organization and
public during, after, or before the critical event. Coombs (2009) stated that
crisis communication involves the managing of information and meaning
throughout the crisis management process.


is very important for organizations to include listening to the public in their
crisis communication strategies in order to nurture trust and reliability
(Mahmoud, 2015). The public confidence toward the
type of social media crisis management is still a question. It might be a trap
or opportunity for the company to have a social media crisis management as the
formality of issue management whereby it is not confirmed. If it is effective
in its crisis management communication, it can be a great improvement for the image
of the company.




To determine crisis communication strategy that
Cadbury used during Cadbury crisis.

To determine the reactions of socially connected


1.   What did the crisis response strategy
of Cadbury used during Cadbury crisis?

2.       What
is public reactions towards the Cadbury
and pig DNA issue crisis

3.       What
is the relationship between publics’ crisis emotions affected by crisis origin
and the crisis response strategy?




This research is basically focus on the importance of a crisis
communication when crises arises. It helps to improve the brand image of the company after a critical
situation on the market, gain the trust of the customers and assure them the
security and faith, get support from the existing employees and keep a high
reputation on the market for upcoming recruitment, avoid legal issues or
violent actions from the public against the company, avoid ambiguity and
misconceptions in interactions with stakeholders and sustain and grow in the
same industry after crisis. (Telang, Deshpande 2017)


Cincotta (2005)
suggested that crisis communication become effective at only when the
organization under crisis responds to the situation at once whereby
organizations should follow a proactive approach to handle the crisis in a
professional manner as such by conveying their stance efficiently to their stakeholders
and customers.


Johnson and Zawawi
(2002) investigated that due to lack of anticipation and preparation of
potential crisis, it was difficult for the organization to remove and eliminate
all the negative perceptions of the market and society about an organization
after a crisis happened.  Reputation is built on what organization say and do.
When this is applied in a crisis communication and management, it is important
to be aware of organization approach the public. The first appearance of the organization
will symbolize the image and message of the organization during a crisis.

 Chapter 2 Literature Review


This research is to analyze the social
media crisis communication and its effectiveness on influencing the public
opinion. There are many previous researches which discussed about this issue.
It includes many case studies of food& beverages well-known company which
resolving crisis though social media effectively.

Previous Researcher

Crisis Response Strategies

are guidelines for the use of crisis-response strategies. From a symbolic perspective,
crisis-response strategies used to protect the organization image. It is the
best way to protect the organizational image by modifying public opinions because
it is the responsibility for the crisis and impressions that should handle by
the organization itself. There are nonexistence strategies and distance
strategies during a crisis. Nonexistence strategies maintain that there is no
crisis, as such organization is not responsible for any negative events.
However, distance strategies help reduced organizational responsibility,
highlighted that it is unintentional or external locus dimensions of crisis
such as excuse or justification during crisis whereas suffering strategy
defines the crisis that reflect a lack of organizational responsibility for a
crisis. (Coombs,2014).

Ulmer (2007) also mentioned that crisis response of nonexistence, is broken
down into four types: denial, clarification, attack, and intimidation. Distance
strategies, included excuse, denial of intention, denial of volition, and
justification. Coombs breaks justification into a few categories, including:
minimizing injury, victim deserving, and misrepresentation of the crisis event.
S.B.C. Ngai, J. Falkheimer (2017) suggested that there are eight crisis
response strategies which is An attack on the accuser, denial, excuse,
victimization, justification, ingratiation, corrective action and full apology
were suggested in SCCT on a sentence basis which basically for the use of media
reports and corporate posts.



2.2.2 Image repair and restoration

Ulmer, Sellnow,
and Seeger (2007) suggested
that public relations practitioners should carefully planned strategy to shift
the blame, reduce responsibility, and avoid affecting company reputation in
becoming worse to crisis, it might turn into efforts which often termed as
image restoration strategies. Apologia generated taxonomies which are Benoit’s (1995) image
restoration strategies and Coombs’ (1999) crisis response
strategies. This can reduce the harm of an organization by moving on from a
crisis as soon as possible. Apologia can be indicating as individual or
organization scandals and crises whereas Benoit’s and Coombs’ typologies
provide strategies is just specifically overcoming crisis which does not
necessarily include individual scandals.

Joseph (2014) argues that image restoration is much more than simply
the communication strategies, organization must be understood how the process
work within the audience whereby the art of persuasion compulsory to be
considered carefully. Organization is important to understand how they differ
from others in the sense of social responsibility and what consumer expected
from organization. This could lead the principle of crisis communication
broaden the definition beyond simply by image restoration.

2.2.3 The role of social
media in crisis management

In a recent study, the new
forms of social media such as Facebook, Twitter and so on were recognized as an
organization’s opportunity to lessen the impact in times of a crisis (Wendling,
Radisch & Jacobzone, 2013). In the study, Wendling et al (2013) note that
previously, radio, television, newspapers and other traditional media sources
were used to transmit valuable information but nowadays social media such as
Facebook and Twitter are tools which can assist an organization to disseminate
and share information with as many people as possible while receiving feedback
and responses from the public. This means that an organization employs the
technology of social media as part of the communication process to the world.
The continuous use of social media as a tool seems likely for the foreseeable
future (Anderson & Rainie, 2010). *

2.2.4 Social media

According to Strategic
Direction, Facebook is role in crisis response, social media is the platform in
forming public opinion particularly happening of a business organization
becoming involved in “bad news”. Social media influence the news agenda in the
sense of news media remain a strong influencer of public discourse, previously
stakeholders able to express their opinions and monitoring for signals of
potential threats to reputation. Therefore, power of social media is that
dialogue can help to promote understanding and reduce conflict.           Crisis manager also needed to ensure
crisis responses of social media do not oppose with the responses of other
channels. Although the frame-setting power of Facebook is marginal, the
discrete framing found on the site confirms that the general audiences should
not be disregarded.

Publics’ acceptance of the corporate crisis response





Situational Crisis Communication
Theory was theorized by W. Timothy Coombs. Coombs (2007) suggests that crisis manager
or public relations practitioners should match strategic crisis responses to
the level of crisis responsibility and reputational approach. Situational
Crisis Communication Theory
provides the way of stakeholders will respond to the crisis happened in the
sense of informing post-crisis communications. This theory provides a set of
guidelines on how crisis managers can apply crisis response strategies to
protect a reputation from the damageable of a crisis.

theory dictates that stakeholders must be protected first by their
organizations by providing information for physical and psychological coping.
After that an organization may turn to amending its reputation. SCCT focuses on
organization-based actions, concerns and outcomes. More researching is required
to explore whether and how the SCCT can be transferred to social media and the
extent to which social media can be used by publics in order to counter
organizations messages.

Social Media and Crises Communication Management. Available from:  accessed Nov 07 2017.

Coombs stated that Situational
Crisis Communication Theory is a framework for a Public Relations practitioners
to interpret a real life situation systematically in order to generate a series
of action in becoming a better and desired outcome. It is not just protecting
and rebuild reputation, this theory also framework on how organization shall
behave and must respond to a crisis happened in order to protect itself.

to John, (2015) Situational
Crisis Communication Theory provided a useful representation of a reality
during crises. Organization is also a victims of the crisis, whereby organization
might face the situation of normal disaster like acts of nature damage an
organization faced such as earthquake; Rumor like fake and damaging information
is being circulated by an organization; Workplace violence like current or
former employee attacks current employee onsite. In a nutshell, product
tampering or malevolence is also the external agent causes damage to an

Druckman (2001) criticize that Situational
Crisis Communication Theory effect occurs when a communicator selects certain
factor to be emphasize during crises. The people who receive message or
responds will focus their attention on those factors when forming public
opinion and making judgments. Coombs (2007) also stated that crisis manager
tries to establish or outline the crisis frame by emphasizing certain cues.

However, Situational Crisis
Communication Theory does not reflect in the model of possibility that a crisis
caused by an external agent, related or not to the organization as mentioned
above. This theory or model explains only those crises caused or related to the
organization whose reputation in which crisis manager of public relations wants
to preserve or protect.

Research for the research quest that
same as yours, refer to their literature review. Not CASE



In this chapter, methodology chosen for this Cadbury crisis study
will be discussed. The methodology includes research subject, design,
materials, data collection procedure and data analysis. This is used to ensure
the result of this study is reliable and valid.


Why, (why not
other media sites.. ) what

Cadbury Dairy Milk Official Facebook
Page fortnightly


3.2 RESEARCH DEISGN (citation)

– 20 first comments.

This research study is
based on qualitative and quantitative analysis studies of a well-known
companies, Cadbury to provide a detailed examination of the company’s crisis
response and the public reactions to them. Qualitative analysis was applied to
better identify and interpret the social media content like structure,
figurative language, communication style was used in the social media post. In
addition, quantitate content analysis is to identify communication source and
crisis response strategies being adopted by Cadbury and to document online
public reactions towards the social media crisis communication.

Data was collected from
articles or online news which regarding the crisis communication that handled
by Cadbury during crisis published social media sites like Cadbury Official sites, Data
collected and analyzed from article which published since the years of
2014-2017 for further information among Cadbury crisis which interconnect to

data was analyzed using content analysis to bring out the important factors
that should be taken care during a crisis communication in a social media.
Crisis that happened in the past few years gave enough scope to analyze Cadbury
crisis communication efforts during and after effects.

Schreier, M. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis. In U. Flick (Ed.),
The SAGE Handbook of Qualiative Data Analysis (pp. 170-183). Thousand Oaks,
USA: SAGE Publications Inc.


3.4 Materials /




3.4.2 Qualitative research

analysis done early in the collection process and continues throughout the
project. Cutler (2004) stated that both approach which is qualitative and
quantitative approach method do provide detailed information of Cadbury’s
crisis responses and public ‘s reactions towards them. However, qualitative
analysis aimed to applied to have better identification and interpretation
towards the corporate content in the sense of content structure, emoticons,
figurative language, communication style, that were being applied in the
initial accusation post. Nevertheless, qualitative approach also adopted aimed
to investigate and identify communication source and crisis response strategies
that uphold by the Cadbury as to outline the online public reactions towards the
Cadbury responses.

Quantitative research

Joseph (2011) *book* All the numbers are collected before analysis begins meant
to be quantitative approach.


Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS)



3.3 Design


variable: Crisis communication strategies

variable: Public Reactions comments



–  Sampling

Non-Probability Sampling

Probability Sampling

Probability uses
mathematical guidelines whereby it able to calculation sampling to produces
less error. This sampling normally uses systematic selection of procedure with
formula to ensure each unit has equal chance of being selected in the sampling.
However, it does not always represent the whole population during the


Non-probability sampling does not follow mathematical
guidelines. This sampling is normally used to provide generalization to the


collection (step 1 to last step)

the research question has been set for qualitative content analysis, the next
step is selecting material for research analysis (Schreier, 2014).
Qualitative content analysis required to have suitable amount of material which
compromise all the accuracy of the outcome, whereby too much information will
pose unnecessary problem towards the analysis. Hence, the key to material
preparation have to assurance of to reflect the “full diversity of data
sources” (p.175). Based on the principle, the following online official sites
were selected for this study: 



– Coding


– intercode