The of Asia have caused displacement of millions

The Earth’s climate has constantly been changing over time, ascribing to the small variations in the rotation of the Earth, which affects the amount of solar energy received. However, the natural fluctuations of the Earth’s current temperatures have been disrupted due to the human use of fossil fuels which emit greenhouse gasses in the air. This results in global warming, or the overall rise in surface temperature on Earth. This heat trapped in the atmosphere induces instability of the Earth’s climate which include sea level rising, droughts, and air pollution. Two areas of the world that have witnessed the dire consequences of climate change are South Asia and East and Southeast Asia. The increase in sea levels in the majority of Asia have caused displacement of millions of people, great losses of arable land, and drastic economic losses. South Asia is comprised of the countries, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Maldives. The area has a wide range of topography and climates with its four physiographic regions including coastal plains and tropical beaches, southern plateaus, the great plains, and the northern mountains. The region is heavily dependent on monsoons as it supplies massive amount of water that is needed to grow water-intensive crops such as rice, a large component of the South Asian diet. Monsoons also provide rainfall that sustains tropical rainforests are good sources of snow and ice in Himalayas that feed into the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra river systems. On the other hand, monsoons have imposed harsh lifestyle conditions on South Asians. Monsoons has countless negative impacts such as widespread flooding, property damage, destruction to agricultural lands, damage to transportation infrastructure, homelessness, disease, malnutrition, serious injury and even death. Nevertheless, the alarming rise of sea levels in Bangladesh, in particular has raised awareness. The population density is the highest in South Asia and yet population is still increasing by 2% annually. In fact, the most densely populated country is Bangladesh with 3,128 people per square mile. The most dense areas are around river valleys and near coastal lowlands. For example, many people in Bangladesh live in water-sodden conditions, due to coastal elevation and sea-level rise from climate change. The areas of East and Southeast Asia are also affected by rising sea levels. East Asia consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan. East Asia is the most populous region in the world, with China having the largest population in the world. Moreover, East Asia is one of the core areas of the world economy and an emerging center of political power. The majority of East Asia is occupied by China, which is mostly made of mountains and plateaus for its landscape. The Gobi Desert, Huang He River, and Yangtze River are also crucial to China. While Mongolia and China many wide plains and plateaus, other countries in East Asia including Japan, Taiwan, North Korea, and South Korea have narrow plains along coasts and rivers in addition to mountains. The Himalayan Mountains separate South Asia from East Asia. North of the Himalayas, lies the massive highland called the Plateau of Tibet in Western China. Another key region in East Asia is Japan. Japan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean as a result of subduction of oceanic plates, and highly prone to earthquakes. These earthquakes are what shaped the islands of Japan. Typhoons and tsunamis are also very common in Japan. Southeast Asia stretches from eastern India to China, consisting of eleven countries and is divided into mainland and inland zones. The mainland region includes Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar and the inland area is made up of Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. Southeast Asia is located between the tropics, causing temperatures to be generally warm whereas, cooler temperatures reside in highland areas. Similar to South Asia, Southeast Asia is also affected by monsoon winds. A key feature of the mainland are long rivers in from the highlands that divide Southeast Asia from China and northwest India. Fertile lowland plains encompass the mainland as well that are well developed for growing rice, key to the Thai, Vietnamese, and Burmese diets. Another aspect of mainland Southeast Asia is its long coastline. The inland region is made up of countless islands, where temperatures are high year-round. Unlike the mainland, rainfall is higher and more evenly distributed throughout the year, due to the frequent typhoons. Relatively dense populations are found in the Southeast Asia’s river deltas, coastal areas, and zones of fertile volcanic soil.