The Safavid, Mughal, and Ottomans were some of the most powerful empires of all time, but all good things must come to an end. This is very true because these three powers were all some of the most powerful empires of their times, but they all fell. Together with other landbased empires, they countered the growing European global influence, but all three, the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals were on the decline by 1750, whereas sea-based powers were still on the rise. The Ottomans grew from a small empire in the 1300’s and eventually encompass most of southeastern Europe by the late 15th century.As the Ottomans moved into Europe, they bypassed Constantinople, but in 1453 they put the city under a successful siege, and upon its capture, renamed it Istanbul. The city that had been the most important center of Orthodox Christianity became an important Muslim center, and its great church, the Hagia Sophia, constructed by Justinian in the 6th century, became an important mosque, a center for Islamic worship. The Ottomans continued to expand their empire, which reached its height of power under Suleiman the Magnificent, who ruled from 1520 to 1566. Suleiman commanded the greatest Ottoman assault against Europe, conquering Belgrade in 1521, laying siege to Vienna in 1529, and retreating only when the onset of winter made it impractical to stay. As it is, Suleiman was stopped, but the Ottomans remained an important world power that controlled much of the water traffic between the Black and Mediterranean Seas. They reduced Venice to a tributary state, and their huge army continued to expand and defend their frontiers.A negative global impact on the Ottoman economy was inflation caused by the increasing amount of New World silver being pumped into the world economy. European traders who controlled the silver could buy more goods with the same quantity of silver than the Ottomans could because the sultan’s government collected taxes according to legally fixed rates, so as the value of the silver declined, tax revenues stayed the same. As a result, the Ottomans were at a disadvantage when trading in the world market because religious law limited the government’s ability to reform tax laws, and when bureaucrats came up with special surtaxes, they were often met with resistance from many who were already suffering from the spiraling economic problems. As the Safavid Empire expanded during the early 16th century, it began to challenge the borders of the neighboring Ottomans. Hostility between the groups was strong, intensified with the Ottomans very wary of this new empire. In 1514 the two armies met at Chaldiran in Northwest Persia, and there is little doubt that religious conflict was at the heart of the struggle. The battle was also important because it illustrated the importance of the new gunpowder technology. The Safavid’s sent their best men, armed with swords and knives, to fight the Ottoman Janissaries, with their cannon and muskets. The Safavid cavalry was slaughtered, and the Ottomans won a decisive victory, one that they were unable to follow up because of the approaching winter. The Safavids recovered, built up their artillery, and continued to fight the Ottomans for another two centuries without either side winning decisively. The battle at Chaldiran was a significant “marker event” in the development of the Islamic world because it set the limits for expansion, with consequences still apparent today. The modern inheritors of the Safavid Empire are Iran and parts of Iraq.In 1523 India was attacked, this time by Babur a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan who founded the Mughal Empire in 1526, a mixture of Mongol and Turkish peoples from central Asia. The empire dominated India until the early 1700s, although it continued to rule in name until 1858. Babur’s invasion of India was motivated by the loss of his ancestral homeland in central Asia through intertribal warfare and probably by his dreams of living up to the reputations of his illustrious ancestors. His military strategies, including one that caused his opponent’s elephants to stampede, were responsible for his success in capturing Delhi. His family’s control was challenged after his death, and despite losing control of Delhi for several years, his son Humayan eventually recaptured northern India, and the empire expanded to control much of the subcontinent under his remarkable grandson, Akbar, who ruled from 1556 to 1605. It was under Akbar that the empire reached its height in power and influence, although its borders continued to grow until the early 18th century.