The (Dunne et al 2005).Farmyards are a very

The sources of agriculture water pollution

The sources and levels
contamination intensity of will depend on the farmers management dynamics for
example the length of  time cows are
housed indoors the overall  structural
design of the farmyard , drains leading out of 
the farm ,location and climate. (Edwards et al 2008)  Poorly managed
farmyards are the main source of water pollution .In Ireland the contaminated
water from the farmyard includes farmyard runoff, milking/parlour washings,
silage and manure wastes (Dunne et al 2005).Farmyards
are a very common site on the Irish landscape, regardless of the type of
farming practiced on the land. These farmyards, include farm buildings,
livestock collecting areas, such as slotted sheds, dung piles, driveways and
pathways leading to and from the farmyard and overflow channels/pipes from
domestic wastewater systems all lead to a combined environmental risk and is a
major source for various environmental contaminants. (Edwards et al 2008) Depending how a farm is
monitored and managed the farmyard represents a large portion of the total
contamination from agriculture. The most common land practice in dairy farming
is land-spreading it is a widely used practice for managing dairy farmyard
wastes with the intention of spreading back the nutrients lost from the
soil  , however,  this method when practiced causes the
degradation of surfaces and ground waters (Healy et al 2004). A farmer’s livestock can also have an effect on the
environment the production of livestock and poultry has had many environmental
impacts, contaminating water, air, and soil.(Scanes 2018) Livestock production
is related directly  to an increased
demand for fodder, also known as silage, on farms this is the reason farmers
are heavily dependent on chemical fertilisers and feeds, the wastes from these  are considered an environmental issue as the
manure and effluent created  are  a disposal problem rather than a useful source
of plant nutrients. The more silage and food inputted into the livestock the
greater the quantity of farmyard manure, slurry and effluents. There sometime
is more manure and slurry then is required for the crop requirements and the
excess manure slurry are applied to soils, without the soils storage capacity and
weather conditions taken into consideration by the farmer. The wastes produced
by livestock contain valuable levels of N and P and other micronutrients. (Hooda
et al 2000)The primary source of
livestock pollution is manure or animal waste it is a huge concern particularly
on farms where intensive animal agriculture is practised. If there is poor
supervision and practice of management, livestock and poultry have a major
effect on the quality of water. The structures which house the livestock and
poultry such as winter sheds, lead to the contamination of water including
phosphate and nitrate, viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, antibiotics, and
androgenic agents through run off and lack of or poor drainage systems. (Scanes
2018) Land-spreading and spraying are the most widely used practices for the
disposal of dairy wastewaters in Ireland (Healy et al 2004). The pollutants that are most likely to come from
farmyards are obtained from the storage or deposition of faecal matter where
the microbial and pathogenic organisms present in the matter along with major
nutrients and toxic substances like pesticides combine together in farmyards
and are washed into nearby drains this greatly impacts the surrounding area as
well as aquatic environments . (Edwards et
al 2008) Cattle can also directly affect aquatic environments by using
streams as pathways to and from fields. Cattle in-stream activity is
potentially an important contributor to water pollution from agriculture.
(Terry et al 2014). Hann et al suggested that cattle spend less
than 2% off their time in stream waters mainly during the summer months when
access to a stream was available (Haan et
al 2010)However the cows will defecate in water bodies like streams where
they have access (Oudshoorn et al
2008 )This deposition of direct animal wastes within rivers or indirectly
through runoff, including during floods, can pose a threat to the aquatic
environment, Nagels et al suggested that
direct deposition of faecal matter by cattle in the streams may be of similar
or greater importance than run-off from the land and farmyard (Nagels et al 2002).Also Terry et al suggested when cattle are walking
into the stream , sediment and nutrients can also enter into the water by the
cattle walking on the river banks and along the riverbeds (Terry et al 2014).Hydrology is the main reason
for nutrient runoff  and leads to serious
impacts downstream(Medici et al
2012).These impacts are closely related to soils as nutrient and pesticide
pollution of water results from surface runoff and subsurface flow, often
related with soil particles, which also have economic and ecological impacts.
Leaching is one process by which pesticides enter into the water, in
agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water and soluble plant nutrients
from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. (www1) Catchments surrounding small
streams can seriously influence its quality, streams surrounded by cultivated catchment
are influenced by inputs of pesticides via field runoff and field drainage
pipes. (Neumann et al 2002) Point
sources include agricultural effluent, runoff and infiltration from animal
feedlots and nonpoint sources runoff from agriculture and run off from pastures
(smith et al 1999).The transport of
nutrients from point and nonpoint sources can have serious effects on the
quality on the waters which the nutrients flow into (Correll 1998).Small water
bodies are often located in rural areas with intensive agricultural use and are
significantly harmed by chemicals and excess nutrients as they are usually
located next to and in direct contact with agricultural fields (Schäfer et al 2007; Liess et al 2008). The small water bodies then become a pathway for
excess nutrients and chemicals to enter into streams, rivers, and ground waters
by surface runoff and lateral flow (Archbold et al 2016)There is a significant contribution both directly and
indirectly from farmyards sewage plant outlet, overflows and runoff .Intensive
agricultural practice inputs on land also have an indirect effect on the
aquatic environments drift, direct spraying onto crops aided by the atmosphere
with precipitation runs pesticides off into water ways. Most entry routes from
the farm into the water depend greatly on heavy precipitation, so the actual
contribution stream pollution is brief and unpredictable. It is thought that
the insecticides mostly bound to suspended matter, whereas herbicides are
transported in dissolved form in the water. (Neumann et al 2002)  Water that seeps
through soil is filtered, used by plants, and reallocated across flow paths to
groundwater and surface water bodies. When soil becomes saturated and plants
cannot use all the excess nutrients, these are then washed into waters (O’Geen et al. 2010). Plants absorb nitrogen (N)
from the soil, and animals eat the plants. The plants then die and decompose,
this is how nitrogen returns back into the soil it is then broken down by
bacteria and the cycle begins again , this is an important cycle as it  supports the majority if not all ecosystems.
Farming disturbs the balance of this cycle, through intense farming practises
like excessive application of fertilisers, this then leads to water pollution
and eutrophication, due to an excess nutrient load (www3) Sources of (P) are
primarily agricultural runoff and due to easier identification and control of
point sources it is becoming easier to identify and manage. (Sharply et al 1994) The transport of nutrients
and water through the land is greatly dependent and varies on hydrological
settings and the type of nutrient (Archbold et
al 2016).Nitrate is typically transported to streams through subsurface
pathways. (Kröger et al 2007) (P)
Phosphorus from over fertilized soils is the main component for maintaining
eutrophication of lakes in agricultural regions. However this type of
eutrophication is not reversible unless the management of the soil and drainage
system changes. (Carpenter 2005) An important food source for cattle during the
winter is silage. Silage is formed by storing and fermenting a crop, in Ireland
grass is commonly used. It is greatly important in the Irish cool, moist,
temperate climate where the drying of hay is a challenge. In order for silage
to be made it involves the anaerobic fermentation of soluble carbohydrates,
this prevents the growth of microorganisms that would then cause spoilage
during this process by production of organic acids as a result  effluent may be produced ,typically when
there is a high moisture content (www1)

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