The and train control system promoted by the

The main purpose
of a railway signalling system is to maintain a safe distance between trains
operating on the same track. It also safeguards the movement of trains at
junctions. Signals also regulate the movement of trains according to service
destination and speed requirements for given sections of a particular track. Various
railway signalling technologies have been introduced over the years in
different parts of the world and all save the same purpose of managing traffic
on the rail in a safe and logical manner (Abed, 2010). A system of
standards used In (ERTMS).  The (ERTMS) is
a signalling and train control system promoted by the European Commission (EC) whose
function is to replace different national train control and command systems
into a single, seamless and competitive railway system. A common rail system
enables interoperability between national rolling stock with those from other
countries in Europe. Furthermore, the (ERTMS) is aimed at creating a single
market for procurement which would lead to a significant reduction in equipment
costs and affordability of signalling and telecoms equipment. The European Railway
Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is a major industrial project developed by
eight UNIFE members – Alstom Transport, Ansaldo STS, AZD Praha, Bombardier
Transportation, CAF, Mermec, Siemens Mobility and Thales – in close cooperation
with the European Union, railway stakeholders and the GSM-R industry.

There are two
components of the (ERTMS) namely the European Train Control System (ETCS) and
the Global System for Mobile Communications-Railway (GSM-R). The (ETCS) is an
automatic train protection system which is designed to replace incompatible
systems throughout Europe. On the other hand, the (GSM-R) is a radio system
which provides a means of voice communication between track and train using
frequency bands of 876-880 MHz and 921-925 MHz (Abed, 2010).
The challenge faced by the rail network across Europe is that there are more
than 20 train control systems in use and each system is a standalone and not
compatible with others. In some countries more than one train control system is
used thus some trains are equipped with multiple control systems to enable them
to operate regionally and in other countries as well. Multiple system come at a
cost not only because they add complexity to the overall system but also
running costs and maintenance. The (ERTMS) system has been developed in part to
try and address these economic issues as well as other safety related concerns
including efforts to reduce headway between trains and boost capacity on
current rail infrastructure by as much as 40%.

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