Review public-key encryption cryptosystem is proposed in this

Review On Mobility Based Secured E­-voting System

Jayshree Gajabe, Mrs. Rashmi Jain

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(Computer Science & engineering, Rajiv
Gandhi College of Engineering, Nagpur.

Email: [email protected]

(Computer Science & engineering, Rajiv
Gandhi College of Engineering, Nagpur

Email: [email protected]  )

The objective
of voting system is to select the leader from people’s choice. In our
traditional voting system we have problems when it comes to voting. Some of
the problems involved include ridging votes during election,  inaccessible polling stations, inadequate
polling materials, man power is needed, declaration of result take too much
time. Because of  such problems the
percentage of voting  is getting
decrease year by year.
So this E-voting system try to address the above
issues. candidates will able to vote from their places using internet
connection. In this system we assuming that 80% to 90% of people  have a smart phone so we will try to design
a Smartphone compatible application. In this application  we will authenticate the user by its aadhar
card number , mobile number or  by
his/her email addresses. After authenticating user will able to see list of
candidates. and user can vote to their favourite candidate ,Then the vote of
user will be stored on database server in encrypted formats using encryption
algorithm. This transmission of data from  user application to database server will be
encrypted by using cryptography .
The main
aim of the work is to allow mobile users for e-voting . It will verify
whether the voting is done by an authorised user or not and provide the vote
count after e-voting
Keywords — Election, e-voting,
Android app, Web server.     




Secure E-Voting system based on public-key encryption cryptosystem
is proposed in this work. This protocol is summarized in three processes:
firstly, access control process which involves the identification and
authentication phases for the applied citizens. Secondly the voting process
which will be done by ciphering the voter information using public-key
encryption cryptosystem, to be submitted over an insecure network to the
specified government election server. Finally, the election server
administrator will sort the final result by deciphering the received encrypted
information using private key. Actually, this E-Voting protocol is more
efficient than traditional Voting protocols since the voter can vote from
his/her own  mobile application without
any extra cost and effort. The
main aim of the work is to allow mobile users for e-voting with the help of
distributed system. It will verify whether the voting is done by an authorized
user or not and provide the vote count after e-voting.




 a method to encrypt data which can only be decrypted at specified time
this can be useful to encrypt some time sensitive data like bidding offer or
electronic vote. They used a combination of public key encryption and hash
function to enable decryption only at certain time. But this method does not
cover communication between client and server and how to store votes in the
database in a secure manner1.

To protect the confidentiality of the
voters, they design a paper ballot that will be teared after people have given
a vote. The teared paper ballot then can be used to count the voting result
while maintaining voter privacy. Unlike the conventional paper ballot which
always have parties and candidates printed on the same order, this method
randomized the order, but still can be correctly counted2.

There are some related research
regarding this issues. The overall design of
e-voting infrastructure was proposed in this. They built a working
ecosystem to deploy a remote voting and ensure its security especially the
verifiability to ensure the votes are valid and able to detect unauthorized
one. The mechanism was to match several parts of the secure key in some servers3.

The attack to the verifiability of vote
data was given in this. The clash attack was simple since it exploited the
voting machine to supply different votes from the same voter. The author
provided the countermeasure by using the serial number on printed receipt to Wombat and Helios e-voting systems4.

Another ballot integrity procedure was
proposed by employing entanglement between two parties5.

There were three phases included: initial,
voting, and verification phase. A formal model for both weak and strong
verifiability. They proof the proposed model to Helios-C(Helios with
Credential) system. However,we propose another system to provide more secure
ballot in e- voting environment built on top of our own system6.

In this system, assuming that every person has smart phone they had
design a smart phone compatible application. In this application they had
authenticated the user by its aadhar card number along with biometrics such as
face recognition or finger print recognition. After authenticating user will
able to see list of candidates. Then the vote of user will be stored on
database server. This transmission of data from end user application to
database server will be encrypted by using cryptography. For this purpose AES
algorithm will be used7.

Technology moulds the life style
of human in a promoting manner. We prefer reducing time and efforts in all our
chores. One of the systems used majorly for this purpose is ON-LINE where
security is the major concern. This paper provides a secure approach for online
voting system using the concept of encryption and digital signature. We have
implemented the concept of AES and RSA algorithm8.

The E-Voting means the voting process in election by using
electronic device. In this proposed system described how the android mobile
phones are efficient and can be used for voting. The android platform is used
to develop an application. Our system support simultaneous voting due to the
distributed nature of the database. During election electronic device is used
for voting process. A voter may only need to register only once for a
particular election and that does all, voter need to cast his /her vote without
actually have to present at the voting cell. The registration process must be
done at Booth application for once then voter is been given a facility to vote
from his/her Android mobile phone irrespective of his/her location. This
proposed system suppose to propose a new e-voting system, which ensures voter
confidentiality and voting accuracy, thus providing an important framework that
based on unique identification ADHAAR ID (U-ID) number. An online solution is very
useful as the information about the voters and the election committee is also made
available to the people in this system9.

Voting is an important part of the democratic  process. The electorate makes a decision or
expresses an opinion that is accepted for everyone. Some parts could be
interested in the election results deviation without anyone else noticing it.
However, ensuring that the whole voting process is performed correctly and
according to current rules and law is, then, even more important. We present in
this work a review of existing verification systems for electronic voting
systems, from both academia and the commercial world. To do so, we realize a
fair comparison against a set of representative voting verification systems, by
using an evaluation framework. We define this framework to be composed of
several properties and covering important system areas, ranging from the user
interaction to security issues. We then model the natural evolution of
verifiability issues on electronic voting systems, which are influenced by
restrictions on current laws and by technological advances10.

Remote voting has been an active research field for application of
cryptographic techniques in the last two decades with many schemes and systems
in publication. In this paper we present an overview of recent efforts in
developing voting schemes and security models that involve a variety of real
world constraints to ensure election integrity. We classify voting schemes
based on their primary cryptographic techniques. We analyze recent typical
schemes and systems against the basic and counter attack requirements with
brief description. Such analysis shows difference among these security
requirements and aids in design of future schemes. Our conclusion is provided
regarding suitability of a particular voting system/scheme under various

algorithm comparison table







  RSA Algorithm

RSA is a cryptosystem
which is known as one of the first practicable public-key cryptosystems and
is widely used for secure
data transmission is public key cipher
2.RSA algorithm is hard to crack.
3.RSA algorithms the public key to encrypt data.

1.Slow signing and decryption, which are
slightly tricky to implement securely.
2.Very slow key generation.
3.Key is
vulnerable to various attacks if poorly implemented.

     Diffie Hellman

A simple public-key algorithm is Diffie-Hellman key exchange .This
protocol enables two users to establish  a secret key using a public-key scheme based
on discrete logarithms.

1.The sender and receiver have no prior knowledge
of each other.
2.Communication can take place through an
insecure channel.
3.Sharing of secret key is safe.

1.can not be used for symmetric key exchange.
2.can not used for signing digital signatures.
3.the nature of diffie-hellman key exchange does make it
susceptible to man in the middle attacks in the exchange.

Digital Signature

DSS is uses the secure hash algorithm a digital signature is an
authentication mechanism that enable the creator of a message to attach a
code that acts as a signature.

1.Non repudiation, because the author cannot be denied of his
work(he created and sent).
2.Imposter prevention Integrity of data, ever change will be

1.Expiry:Digital signatures, like all technological products, are
highly dependent on the technology it is based on.

Hash Function

Hash function also called as message digest and one way
encryption, are in some sense use no key.

1.the  main advantage is
syncronization. many situations, hash tables turn out more efficient than
lookup structures.

1.hash collisions are practically unavoidable.
2.hash tables becomes quite inefficient when there are many


traditional voting system the percentage of voting is getting low year by year.
There are so many security issues also due to which frauds happens in voting system.
So our proposed  e-voting system which
will be a highly secure. Through this system a user can cast his vote from any
remote location. And hence percentage of voting will increase and fraud also
will decrease. Such a highly secure voting system is also very useful in
decision making process in any organization.




1R.L.Rivest, A. Shamir and D.A Wagner (1996), ” Time lock puzzles
and time related Crpto”, Research Showcase @ MIT.


2 H. Pan, E. Hou, and N. Ansari (2011), “Ensuringvoters’
and candidate confidentiality in E-voting systems”, 34th IEEE Sarnoff 


3 A. Hassan and
X. Zhang (2013), “Design and build a secure e-voting infrastructure,” IEEE
Systems,Technology and Applications Conference.


4 R. Kusters, T. Truderung and A. Vogt
(2012), “Clash attacks on the verifiability of e-voting systems,” IEEE Symposium
on Security and Privacy.

5 H.
Alshammari, K. Elleithy, K. Almgren, and S. Albelwi (2014), “Group signature
entanglement in e-voting system,” IEEE Systems, Application and Technology


6 V. Cortier, D. Galindo , S. Glondu, and
M.Izabachene (2014), “Election verifiability for Helios under weaker trust
assumptions,” Computer Security- ESORICS.


7 Ketaki Bhoyar ,Pranav R. Patil
,Ashish R. Zaware ,Arvind S. Pawar (2015),
“An Assurable E-Voting System That Ensures Voter Confidentiality and
Voting Accuracy,” International
Journal of Computer Applications.Volume
132 – No.14, December2015


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Approach for E-Voting Using Encryption and Digital Signature”,2015 IJEDR | NC3N 2015


9Akshay Akhare A,Manoj Gadale
R,Rajashree Raskar S,Bhagyashree Jaykar V,Mrs. D.A.Phalke”Secure Mobile Based
E-Voting System”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation
Trends in Computing and Communication


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“Verification Systems for Electronic Voting:A Survey”.


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Abhishek Reddy Kankanala, Xukai Zou ,”A
Taxonomy and Comparison of Remote Voting Schemes”,