Phadake also the place of political debate, social

Phadake states that “following sexual assaults on women in public spaces in cities, discussions tend to frame the issue in terms of women’s safety in the streets rather than their right to access public space” (Phadake; 50). Women do not enjoy the same access to public space as men and LGBTQ2S homeless youth, certainly those who identify as women, are even less likely to enjoy the same access to to public space as men because of laws, social norms, and practices that restrict their freedom of movement, association and participation in collective action. Public spaces can be defined as  sites that are accessible to all and can take spatial forms such as parks, streets, markets, etc. However, in many societies a woman and other marginalized individuals are not meant to venture alone on the streets and other public places. Those who break those rules may face stigma and even harassment and violence. Public space is not limited to physical spaces, it is also the place of political debate, social interaction and democratic exercise. In this sense, the access of marginalized groups, like LGBTQ2S homeless youth, is restricted. Their public expression and, even more so, their involvement in a social or political movement is often taboo.Nyers argues that “citizenship is part of a growing movement within citizenship studies that criticizes the exclusions rendered by the acceptance of formal citizenship as a precondition for political voice” and that it is “becoming increasingly common to hear arguments that criteria for inclusion should rely less on formal membership than on the principle that “all affected” people should be included” (Nyers; 130). In today’s climate, equity and inclusion are essential in municipalities. Unfortunately, persistent systemic forms of discrimination have created cities that are not suitable for everyone. If they are not corrected quickly, these challenges will become greater. Our cities are experiencing growing inequalities when it comes to resources, access and power. This is not strictly limited to LGBTQ2S homeless youth as Aboriginals, women, racialized people, people with disabilities, people living in poverty, youth, seniors,, newcomers and LGBTQ people face barriers to accessing care health, employment and housing. This injustice has a social and financial cost for municipalities. Women’s organizations have previously drawn attention to the experience of the city experienced by women and girls from diverse backgrounds; and what we can gather from these experiences is that municipalities are stronger when the aspirations and contributions of women and girls are taken into consideration. The challenges are even greater for racialized, indigenous, youth, disabled, belonging to the LGBTQ2S community and / or poor individuals. Looking at things from the perspective of equity and inclusion, which addresses gender differences as well as other inequalities (income disparity, racism, discrimination based on physical ability, homophobia, ageism, etc.), municipalities are able to better meet the aspirations of ALL. Cities must ensure the quality of life of citizens. It is beneficial and extremely important to address inequities to ensure inclusion of all residents. Equity and inclusion create more sustainable cities, where people from all walks of life have the right to participate fully in social, economic, political and cultural life, and can do so. Cities are leaders in this area: they engage in promising practices that make a difference. As they employ more and more diverse staff and executives and become more representative of the communities they serve, they deepen their understanding of the perspectives of particular communities.Marginalized groups lack membership within the city meaning they are often excluded from decision-making, public institutions, basic services and even citizenship. They are more vulnerable to poverty and more likely to be affected by life-threatening diseases, and more likely to be abused and exploited. Providing fair and equal access to ALL members of the city not only builds an inclusive society that empowers marginalized groups and individuals but this in turn supports sustainable development. Whether it be by creating inclusive institutions, anti-discrimination legislation, encouraging the defence of human rights, strengthening equity measures, encouraging conditional release, empowerment and accountability through targeted policies and programs or strengthening the organizational capacity of civil society, there are many ways in which marginalization and exclusion within the city can be fought.