New pollution green vehicles has become a basic






New Energy Vehicle – Electric

Albin Tomy      Yuhao Ren 

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17F   Manufacturing Process-01 MENG1019-17F-12067

Professor John McGrath

Wednesday January 10, 2018








Stamping processWelding process

spot weldingResistance
seam weldingFriction
beam welding

Painting processAssembly process 




New energy cars have been
developed in recent years. With the development of society, the progress of
science and technology, the car already is a must for every family in the daily
life. But the growth of cars has resulted in the reduction of oil resources in
the world and the destruction of the environment. Therefore, the search for
pollution-free or low pollution green vehicles has become a basic national
policy of all countries. The development of new energy vehicles is an effective
way to solve the problems of energy and environmental protection in the world
and is the inevitable choice for the sustainable development of world’s
automobile industry. In today’s world, there are two new energy
vehicles are the most popular, one is China’s BYD, the other is the United
States’ Tesla.


There are some new things in the new energy

1. The car body is
made of high strength composite material. The composite material is made by
aluminum, carbon fiber (kind of polymers), and ceramic material. These
materials are able to make car’s weight light, and the structure of car is

2. AI driving. If
you feel too tired to drive, you can rest assured of using AI driving. There
are more than 100 microcomputers in the car, 360 degrees around the car. These
microcomputers like radar, they are able to sense the changes around the car.

            3. Charging. This car is using
electric power. It’s more environmental, and save money. We’ll send a charging
device to you, it is made by C60 (a superconducting material). Charging the car
only a few seconds.


 Usually, there are two types of batteries are
used in car. The primary battery cells have a limited life time cycle. However
the secondary batteries used in the electric vehicles are reusable, which makes
them more profitable when compare to other ones. This kind of batteries are
found in the center of the car, which helps to balance the overall weight of
the vehicle. The secondary rechargeable batteries are also known as “T-shaped
batteries” due to the place where it is situated.

the batteries for the electric cars are made using the combination of various
metals such as nickel – zinc, nickel –iron, lead-acid and zinc- chloride. The
40% overall weight of the vehicle contains the electric propulsion system and
the secondary battery. There are two power plants in the hybrid automobile,
which perform according to the conditions. In this hybrid automobile, it
contains a combination of internal combustion and electric engine.



The batteries of new energy vehicles are the most important part of new energy vehicles. BYD and Tesla batteries are not the same. Tesla: The battery cathode material as a naming way, ternary lithium battery called ternary polymer lithium battery. Ternary polymer lithium battery refers to the cathode material using lithium nickel cobalt lithium manganese (Li (NiCoMn) O2) ternary cathode material, ternary composite cathode material precursor products, nickel salts, cobalt salts, manganese salts As raw materials, the proportion of nickel, cobalt and manganese inside can be adjusted according to actual needs, ternary material as the positive battery lithium cobalt oxide batteries with high safety, but the voltage is too low.(Ternary polymer lithium battery and other electronic products used in laptops, after being used in the field of electric vehicles.)BYD               BYD new energy vehicles that is the technology of mature lithium iron phosphate battery. Lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium iron phosphate is used as the cathode material of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion battery cathode materials are mainly lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, lithium nickel oxide, ternary materials, such as lithium iron phosphate. Among them, lithium cobalt oxide is the most cathode material used by most lithium-ion batteries. Developed iron-powered batteries, a driving force for electric vehicles. Lithium iron phosphate battery in the safety performance and dynamic performance have great protection and promotion, 0 to 100km / h acceleration time of about 8 seconds, a charge of driving range of 300Km to 400Km above. The lithium iron phosphate crystals P-O bond solid, difficult to break down, even at high temperatures or overcharge will not be the same as lithium cobalt oxide structure collapse heat or the formation of strong oxidizing substances, so have good safety. Some reports pointed out that in practice, acupuncture or short-circuit test found that a small part of the sample combustion phenomenon, but did not appear an example of an explosion, and overcharge test using its own discharge voltage is much higher than several times the high-voltage charge found that there are still Explosion phenomenon.               Nevertheless, its overcharge safety compared to ordinary liquid electrolyte lithium cobalt oxide battery, has greatly improved. Long-life lead-acid battery cycle life of about 300 times, the highest will be 500 times, and lithium iron phosphate battery life cycle up to 2000 times the standard charge (5 hours) use, up to 2000 times. The same quality of lead-acid batteries is “a new six months, the first half of six months, maintenance and six months,” up to 1 to 1.5 years, and lithium iron phosphate batteries in the same conditions, the theoretical life expectancy will reach 7 to 8 years. Lithium iron phosphate peak heat up to 350 ºC -500 ºC and lithium manganese oxide and lithium cobalt oxide only around 200 ºC wide operating temperature range. (-20 ºC – +75 ºC), high temperature characteristics of lithium iron phosphate peak heat up to 350 ºC -500 ºC and lithium manganese oxide and lithium cobalt oxide only around 200 ºC. It has a larger capacity than ordinary batteries (lead-acid, etc.). Lithium iron phosphate battery rechargeable battery is often in full condition, the capacity will quickly lower than the rated capacity value, a phenomenon called memory effect. Like nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium batteries exist memory, and lithium iron phosphate batteries without this phenomenon, no matter what the state of the battery can be used with the charge without having to put the first recharge.          The capacity of the same size lithium iron phosphate battery size is 2/3 of the volume of lead-acid batteries, the weight of lead-acid batteries 1/3. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are generally considered to contain no heavy metals and rare metals (nickel-metal hydride batteries need rare metals), non-toxic (SGS certification passed), pollution-free, in line with European RoHS regulations for the absolute green battery certificate. Lithium iron phosphate batteries also have shortcomings: for example, low-temperature performance is poor, the cathode material tap density is small, the capacity of lithium iron phosphate batteries larger than lithium-ion batteries such as lithium-ion batteries, and so the micro-batteries do not have the advantage. When used in power batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, like other batteries, need to face the battery consistency issues. 


manufacturing process of electric cars is a combination of various raw
materials to produce the result. The main material used to build car’s skeleton
named ‘Space Frame’ is Aluminum. One of the advantage of Aluminum metal is
light weight. An impact resistant plastic is used to make the main body of the
vehicle, which can be recycled in the future. Moreover, the heart of the
steering wheel and seat frames are made using magnesium, also a lightweight

The traction or motor system is made using a combination of plastic and metal. The tires used in the electric cars are differ from the gasoline cars. They are designed to avoid higher pressure, which helps to conserve the energy and decrease the resistance. In order to prevent from overheating, the windshield is made up of solar glass.


order to produce reliable quality materials, it is important to select suitable
heat treatment method for specific steel types and grades. The types of heat
treatment used for the manufacturing of electric car are annealing,
homogenizing, normalizing, quenching and precipitation etc.


treatment is mainly used to stabilize the aluminum, which is dislocated and
distorted. This resulted for the tendency to revert. The purpose are
eliminatory residual stress and softening of the metal. General component used
in annealing is forged blanks.


is another type of heat treatment generally has more functions according to the
alloy metals. Homogenizing is also known as ‘preheating processes’. The main
principle of homogenizing in the manufacturing of electric car is to increase
the workability.


principle of Quenching heat treatment is to balance the hardness for toughness
and strength. It is also considered as the most critical process of the heat treatment.
In this method, ‘critical control range’, which is based on
diffusion-controlled reactions. The typical components

for quenching are arms, fasteners and rods.


Like most of the heat treatment, it is used in the manufacturing of electric cars to reduce the hardness for machining. As a result, it save time and cost for process. The primary purpose is to control the microstructure and decrease the hardness for machining.


Sheet metal stampingClosure subassemblyBody in white assemblyPaint shopBody assemblyFinal assemblyPowertrain and chases fittingInspection and testing


first: stamping process.

is one of the key operation in the manufacturing process of electric cars
.usually stamping is done by using sheet metals to create body panels, floor
pans, hoods

, doors and other parts
of the vehicle. It is mostly automated process, where machines or robots
changes the process and break down the metal sheets as blanks. The main
stamping process operations use in manufacturing the electric cars are;

separating sheet metals into various sheets Trimming-
removing the unnecessary metal parts Stamping
– changing the flat metal sheet into shape of product Piercing
– creating useful holes in the metal partFlanging-
finishing the edges of the part by folding

goal is to produce a variety of body stamping parts. The following is a neatly
stacked roll of car special steel, the thickness of 1.0mm to 1.2mm range. There
will be a magical change to the soil of steel after the process. First of all,
the entire volume of steel must be cut into pieces of different sizes, sorted,
in order to their different uses. Then the materials will assigned to the
various presses. The flat steel is reshaped by a press and pressed into various
press parts on the body. When good front fenders, press-molded vehicle bodyworks
and other parts have been done, they will sent to the welding shop to the next

second: welding process.

the goal is to weld various body stamping parts into the finished body. In the
welding shop, a variety of body parts are brought together, to be welding.
After each welding is completed, the worker will carefully check the property
of each welding parts. BYD’s body welding also use industrial robots, which
greatly improves efficiency and reduces the risk of errors. When body welding
is completed, workers still need further checking on welding parts. After
confirming that there is no problem with the parts, the white body will be sent
to the painting shop for the next process.

The most commonly used
welding technique in manufacturing of electric car are;

Spot welding


It is considered as the
principle method to join the body components. Normally, the formation happens
when the heat is produced due to the resistance of metal part to the flow of
current and pressure. Also, it is estimated that around 4000-4500 welding spots
will be in the steel body of a car. The main drawback of resistance spot welding
is the operation is not continuous. It is only applicable for overlapped work

Seam Welding


In this type of
resistance welding, it can overcome the drawbacks of spot welding. Seam welding
performs equally on continuous metal parts and overlapped metal parts. One of
the main advantage of this operation is its speed. An AC power supply is given
to two electrode wheels, where work piece is passed through in between the



In friction welding, heat
for the welding is produced by the mechanical motion of the work pieces. In
this process, one metal piece is rotated opposite to the other piece under high
pressure. At some point, the operation reach specific temperature and parts
will be welded. Frictional welding is mainly used to produce pistons rods,
engine valves, steering columns, half shafts, axle cases etc. This operation
can be adjusted by changing the pressure, time and rotational speed.

beam Welding



to the competition in manufacturing field, laser beam welding gained
popularity. It has a lot of advantages than the other welding techniques used
in manufacturing. In this operation, laser beam is focused on the metal sheet
joints. Generally, metal sheets showing the thickness between 0.2 mm to 6mm is
welded using laser. It is operated within the power range of 3kW to 5kW. The
laser beam is focused using copper mirrors suited in front of the system.
Additionally, it is fully automated process with non-contact. This type of
welding is mainly used for higher number of automotive production.


Painting process.

make a beautiful appearance to the body part, workers need to paint the parts.
The assembled body is lifted to the paint shop and electrophoresis everywhere
to protect the part against rust. When the anti-rust treatment is completed,
the workers also have to clean the body surface and find any flaws, to prepare
for the next painting step. As the paint contains a lot of toxic substances and
workers will waste some of the painting materials, the BYD spray painting
process has been completed by a robot. At this point, the body painting process
is over, the painted body will be sent to the final assembly workshop for the
final process.

Assembly process.


The various parts of the body, chassis and interior assembled together to form
a complete car. BYD’s girder required a steering system and other components. Then
installs the vehicle suspension rod and other components. Next installing the
spare tire bracket. After that, installing the rear axle housing. After the
bridge is installed, installs a coil spring on it. Next is the double wishbone
suspension before installation. Next is installing the battery. Then, installs
front shock absorbers and brake discs.

 Then, install the engine and transmission.
Installs door seals and other interior parts. Installs the back door lock and column
interior decoration. Installs engine compartment sound insulation firewall.
Installs the vehicle control circuit, embedded wiring harness on the bottom
plate, and installs the instrument panel assembly. Installs the acoustic panel,
door and seat belt. In the trench to the vehicle’s chassis and body with a
solid combination. Next, installs some electrical controls on the dashboard, a
handbrake and a CD player. Installs rear seats, steering wheel and other
interior trim. Installs the front door core board. Installs the front armrest
box. Installs the front seats.



cars are well- known for the advantages, when compare to the normal ones. They
are usually known as ‘Green Cars’, due to the zero emission of carbon dioxide
(CO2) gas. Carbon diode gas is considered as one of the main reason
behind air pollution.


electric cars are more efficient than gasoline cars, from various studies, it
is clear that electric cars are 80% efficient in the performance. On the other
hand, gasoline cars release major percentage as useless heat energy, it
resulted in reducing the efficiency in normal cars. For instance, ‘Tesla’, one
of the top brand in electric car market claims that it cost around only 1000 $
for thirty thousand running. But for the same distance, it costs five times the
normal cost for the gasoline cars.


is one of the major problems fixed in the car manufacturing sector. The
customer has to spend a lot of money in the day to day maintenance for the car.
Electric cars are operated by using electrically generated a result,
customer don’t need to lubricate the engines.

Less noise pollution

they create less noise pollution because the carbide used on electric cars are
quitter than the gasoline gas. This helps them to be a better option for a long
distance with high acceleration.


Long recharge time

for gasoline cars, it takes just few minutes to fill the fuel. But for electric
cars it takes 4-6 hrs. to complete the charging process.

Battery replacement

is one of the prime component the electric should be replaced
periodically of 3-10 hours, which might be an extra burden for the customer.

Short driving distance

of the limitation is the range of driving distance. Basically, a customer can
drive an electric car around 100 miles with full charging. Therefore, they need
to charge the car for future might be difficult for long distance


order to manufacture the electric car team members, require some specific skills.
They must know how to use computer aided design packages. Also, they should
have the ability to solve the engineering problem involving mechanical, electrical,
hydraulic, thermodynamic or pragmatic principle. Moreover, members will be
preparing the expenses. Various kinds of materials, reports and estimated time
to produce the parts. Furthermore, they need to find the mechanical failures
and unexpected damages happen in the manufacturing process. The effective time
management and organization help to produce the part more accurately, it is
really a fast-pashed work environment. Therefore, team member may work on
traditional assembly line, which is called lean manufacturing system. From all this,
it is clear that team members should have various multitasking skills.


we talking about cars, we would say gasoline cars at the beginning. As time
goes by, new energy vehicles are becoming reality, especially electric cars.
Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Model S, 3 and X and many other electric cars, some of
them are hybrid, too. However, will electric cars last long and becoming a
cheaper and better kind of vehicle rather than gasoline cars?

first factor of electric vehicle is their batteries. Prices are the important
part of the whole things. From what specialists said, prices of batteries are
becoming cheaper and cheaper, “Battery prices are headed below the magic $150
per kilowatt-hour in the next decade” (Hwang, 2016). Due to rapidly fall of the
prices of electric vehicles’ batteries, factories are investing more and more
kinds of electric vehicles to make sure when electric vehicles enter the market
wide like normal gasoline cars, they can earn more and win this price match.
When the price of batteries been decreased, the next problem of electric
vehicles is the range. Differ from gasoline vehicles, electric vehicles need
more time to charge and more times to charge than gasoline vehicles if they
both travel the same distance. Nowadays, electric vehicles can travel more than
200 miles (Tesla Model S) and the standard 75D costs $96650, which is far more
money than buying a Honda Accord hybrid. Even for the new Tesla Model 3, it
costs almost the same as Honda Accord. Thus it cannot use free Tesla
supercharger, the price is still a little bit high at a standard vehicle level.

next thing is the charging. According to Tesla, they provide charging stations
in plazas and in underground parking lots, or costumers could purchase adapters
for charging. Both of them need to pay extra money, which is cheaper than
gasoline, exactly. Use charging station would provide electric in high voltage
and half price of the same distance which gasoline can drive.


enlarge the mileage the electric vehicles could drive, solving batteries is the
most important part. Changing materials to make sure the battery can store more
electricity for long range drive. “Range is an important issue because so-called
“range anxiety” is a major factor limiting public acceptance of electric vehicles. People are afraid they won’t be able to travel very far or
that they’ll get stuck on the side of the road” (Shipman, 2016). As a result,
Matt Shipman, who posted researches of developing electric vehicles’ battery by
researchers at North Carolina State University. It is a new, smaller, lighter
and more efficient type of battery. If this kind of battery would been sell on
market, the efficiency of electric and hybrid vehicles will increase, which
means more mileage (and cheaper). And researches are using silicon carbide
(SiC) to develop the components of battery. “Our
silicon carbide prototype inverter can transfer 99 percent of energy to the
motor, which is about two percent higher than the best silicon-based inverters
under normal conditions” (Shipman, 2016), said Iqbal Husain, he also comments,
“Equally important, the silicon carbide inverters can be smaller and lighter
than their silicon counterparts, further improving the range of electric
vehicles” (Shipman, 2016).

 For energy saving, scientists and autoworkers
can create a flow, which can not only save electricity from moving wheels, but
also restore the electricity flowed in the engine or other machines used
electricity, back into the battery, when engine stops. “‘Instead of refining
petroleum, the refiners would reprocess spend electrolytes and instead of
dispensing gas, the fueling stations would dispense a water and ethanol or
methanol solution as fluid electrolytes to power vehicles,’ Cushman said. ‘Users
would be able to drop off the spend electrolytes at gas stations, which would
then be sent in bulk to solar farms, wind turbine installations or
hydroelectric plants for reconstitution or re-charging into the viable
electrolyte and reused many times.


It is believed
that our technology could be nearly ‘drop-in’ ready for most of the underground
piping system, rail and truck delivery system, gas station and refineries”
(Purdue University 2017). This kind of fluid will be reused in a solar farm or
hydroelectric plant for re-charging. This is convenient and saved more energy
on charging and recharging energy into the fluid. And to say more, with this
kind of fluid, battery would be protected and maintained to last longer.

In summary, there
are advantages and disadvantages to electric vehicle. EV is still in developing
process, waiting scientists and automakers to replace its weakness, to become a
longer lasting, more environmental friendly, cheaper, safer, and lighter and a
kind of vehicle full of high technology.