Many These material permit the preparation of activated

Many
of these materials (coconut shells, fruits stones, etcc.) on carbonization
produce non-graphitizable, high-purity 
chars appropriate hardness and bulk density, which are very adequate as
precursors for activated carbons of high quality, useful in adsorption of both
gases and solutes from aqueous solution. These material permit the preparation
of activated carbons with a variety of pore size distributions by modifying the
preparation conditions of either physical or chemical activation procedures (Rodríguez-Reinoso & Molina-Sabio, 1992).  Palm kernel shells (PKS) was widely is an
attractive  biomass residue for the
production of a phenolic-rich bio-oil, because of its high lignin content (45
wt.%) (Choi et al., 2015). Activated carbons can
be prepared from many organic materials having a high carbon content like wood,
coal, lignite and coconut shells. Many others agricultural by-products have
been used as sources for activated carbons production such as cherry stones,
olive stones, oil palm stones, apricot stones, almond shells, sugar cane
bagasse, walnut shells, pecan shells, cotton stalks and date stones (Bouchelta, Medjram, Bertrand, & Bellat, 2008). The increasing usage
and competitiveness of activated carbon prices, has prompted the usage of
agricultural by-products such as fruits stones, cocnut shell and rice straw as
materials to prepare activated carbon (Ahmad et al., 2007). Phenol-formaldehyde
resins have structural features similar to those in coals, but contain much
fewer mineral impurities. Because of the low ash content, activated carbons
prepared from these resins are expected to have a high specific porosity
compared with those derived from coal (Teng & Wang, 2000). The waste water is
composed essentially of the own water of the olives, together with the water
used in their washing and processing, and its average composition is around 80%
water, 18% organic matter and 2% mineral matter (Moreno-Castilla, Carrasco-Marín, López-Ramón, &
Alvarez-Merino, 2001). The composition of
the organic portion of the olive-mill waste water is quite complex,
containing  greases, proteins,
carbohydrates, organic acids, polyalcohols, pectines, tanines, glucosides and
polyphenols. The mineral matter is composed essentially of carbonates,
phosphates, sodium and potassium as the major ions. The water content of this
waste liquid can be reduced in a 70-75% and reused in the process, obtaining in
this way a concentrated olive-mill waste water (Moreno-Castilla et al., 2001).

Table
: Maximum Cu adsorption quantities of pyrolytic biochars

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Pyrolytic biochar source

Maximum Cu adsorption quantity (mg/g)

Hardwood

7.44

Switch grass

31

Corn straw

12.52

Amino-modified biochar

17.01

Spartina alterniflora

48.49

Peanut straw

88.9

Soybean straw

50.2

Composed swine manure

20.11

Sewage sludge

10.56

Commercial activated carbon

11.4

Commercial powdered activated carbon

1.8

Undaira pinnatifda

125.8

Enteromorpha compressa

75.1

 

olive-mill
waste water is produced in large quantities during the manufacture process of
the olive oil in mills. This by product has been used as raw material to
produce activated carbons by both chemical and physical activation methods. The
composition of the organic portion of the olive-mill waste water is quite
complex, containing : grease, proteins, carbohydrates, organic acids,
polyalcohols, pectines, tanines, glucosides and polyphenols. The mineral matter
is composed essentially of carbonates, phosphates, sodium and potassium as the
major ions. The residue could be treated appropriately to obtain activated
carbon. Thus, olive-mill waste can cause environmental contamination problems
in the areas where the olive mills are placed. (Moreno-Castilla et al., 2001)

activated
carbon which is a versatile adsorbent because of its good adsorption
properties, can be produced from a variety of raw materials. Among them, coal
is the most commonly used precursor due to its low cost and large supply and
also activated carbon prepared from coal is superior to those derived from
lignocellulosic materials in terms of mechanical properties. (Ahmadpour & Do, 1996)

removal
of polluting was materials, the preparation of activated carbon from such
agricultural by-products would also include economic gains for products manufactured
from abundant waste sources.(Martínez et al., 2006)

in
order to decrease the cost of treatment process, low cost forest and
agricultural waste are presently considered promising adsorbent for adsorption
applications. (??ahin & Saka, 2013)

precursors
for the manufacture of active carbons can be different carbonaceous materials,
for instance wood, lignin, cellulose, peat and coals, beginning from brown
coals and ending with anthracites.(6) (Nowicki, Pietrzak, & Wachowska, 2010)

palm
kernel shell (PKS) is an attractive biomass residue for the production of a
phenol-rich bio-oil, because of its high lignin content (over 45 wt.%) (Choi et al., 2015)