Juan world. International organizations (IGOs) help nation states

Juan Pedroza

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December 3, 2017

            Nation states consist of two forms of institutions.
First, a state which refers to a country that is internationally recognized,
politically organized, and sovereign over a territorial area. Second, the nation
refers to a shared culture or ethnic identity that is not dependent upon a fixed
territory for recognition. A nation state is a state that provides territorial
sovereignty over a particular nation (An Intro. To Global Studies, pg32). The
nation state is considered to be today’s most important international actor and
was also the most important international actor within the era of imperialism
in19th and 20th centuries. Nation states were able to obtained
international power and position by conquering and exploiting other inferior stateless
nations. After the emergence of modern global organizations within the mid-20th
century, nation states and international organizations have developed a mutual
relationship among themselves. Nation states are not overshadowed by
international organizations. Working side by side with international and
non-international organizations made the nation state system stronger and a more
powerful participant within todays globalize world. International organizations
(IGOs) help nation states prepare themselves for globalization hence they promoted
world peace within its members and minimize international conflict, they enhanced
fair trade practices among nation states within organizations like the World
Trade Organization (WTO), and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) help to
improve the living conditions and protect human rights within developing third
and second world nation states.     

            The nation state within the era of imperialism in the 19th
and 20th centuries was considered to be the most important
international actor. The need for resources and competition within global
markets contributed to the rise of imperialism, where powerful nation states
would refuse to acknowledge the sovereignty of these less development “stateless”
nations. A “stateless” nation is a group of people that identify themselves
with a shared an ethnicity and culture, who did not have a territorial region
to represent them. Usually, powerful nation states would take over these
nations and establish their own set of borders, transportation systems, and
governments within these regions in order to maximize the extraction of resources
(An Intro. To Global Studies, pg36). Not only did these nation states exploit the
resources within these regions, but they also terrorized theses primitive
individuals and damaged the environment as well. They establish institutions of
slavery and, not only committed, but also encouraged the rapping of women. They
institutionalized racial segregation within political and social structures,
where these stateless individuals would be deprive of civil and human rights
such as the right to vote, right to freedom of speech, and their right to be
free. Nation states also damaged the environment within these regions because
they excessively planted cash crops which resulted in soil depletion, and lead
to the creation of desertification, within these under-developed nation states.
In the quest for international power, the injustices that nation states
committed towards these stateless nations were left unpunished. For example, King
Leopold of Belgium exploited the extraction of rubber within the Congo, but at
the same time advocated on using brutality, such as amputating the limbs of
slaves, in order to maximize the extraction of rubber (Notes from class). Within
the era of imperialism, the nation state was the most important international
actor because there weren’t any organizations that prevented them invading other
nation states, or establishing institutions of slavery within conquered regions.
However, nation states did not suffer any forms of punishment for encouraging the
practice of torture within these forced labor institutions. The international
world was anarchical because it was literary a dog-eat dog kind of world, and
the only way for nation states to have power and influence was by having resources.
Therefore, if nation states were in control of most resources that others
wanted, they would have the advantage and power to control the prices of
products within the global market, thus proving the nation states global
importance.        

            After the end of imperialism, the nation state continued
to be an important international actor. The nation state and international
organizations have been working together to make nation state system stronger
and powerful international participants. Nation states formed IGOs such as the
United Nations (UN) and WTO for purposes such as promoting peace, enhancing
trade, and encouraging cooperation. Nation states must also change their
behaviors in order to meet the standards of the IGOs overall goals (An Intro,
To Global Studies, pg40). Within organizations like the UN, members are able to
debate on certain political, economic, or territorial issues within the United
Nations General Assembly (UNGA). They are able to settle disputes in an economical
and civilized manner that helps maintain the overall peace. The UNGA helps strengthen
international relationships, and provides a platform where nation state representatives
can inform themselves of certain conflicts foreign members are facing. However, the international
power of nation states is demonstrated within the United Nation Security Council.
The UNSC consist of 15 members, but five of those nation states have permanent
positions and are entitled to a veto power. For example, if one of those five
nation sates doesn’t approve of a certain UN action, they can use their veto
power to cancel it. Thus UN’s attempt of war prevention has strengthened the
nation state system because nation states avoid the possibility of falling in debt
due to the high cost of war. They avoid the destruction of their infrastructures
and prevent internal conflict from citizens who disapprove of the war itself. Even
though the UN is a powerful international organization, some may argue that its
power overshadows that of the nation states, but their international power is
balance out within the United Nation Security Council.        

Other
international organizations like the WTO, advocate on enhancing fair trade and
encourage cooperation among nation states. According to the World Trade
Organization, the rules and disciplines that the WTO enforces, such as the reduction
of tariffs, prevention of dumping, elimination of favoritism regarding the
trading of certain products and between nation states, are imposed and
regulated by the members themselves. In other words the nation states have sovereignty.
This proves that nation state is still today’s important international actors.
For example, when the United States decided to impose a tariff on steel in
order to protect its domestic market, the WTO members all agreed that this
action was unconstitutional in regards to the WTO establish policies (An intro.
To Global Studies, Pg68). The WTO wants to make trade among its members more
predictable, so that they can develop a sense of trust and establish economic-based
relationships among themselves. Thus, this would not only bring them profit,
but also encourage each other to develop better technological products and
resources among themselves (An Intro. To Global Studies, Pg68). Their goal is to
create more international competition within todays agricultural,
technological, and manufacturing markets. This would motivate nation states to invest
within their own steel manufacturing corporations, auto motive industries, and foreign
multi-nation corporations in order to provide the global market with innovative
products. Therefore, international organizations like the UN and the WTO provide
the guide lines so that nation states can be better international actors. With
global conflicts kept at a minimum due to the help of the UN, nation states can
focus on expanding their global markets by manufacturing high quality products,
developing new forms of innovative re-useable energy such as the development of
hydrogen fuel in an attempt to reduce high carbon dioxide levels in heavy-polluted
countries. They can also invest in the infrastructure and corporations of
foreign nation states in order to encourage globalize cooperation and establish
better political and economic relationships among each other.    

            Imperialism lowered the standard of
living within third and second world nation states. With the help of NGOs, developing
nation states have been trying to rebuild their infrastructure, raise their
standards of living, and protect the rights of their citizens. According to An Introduction
to Global Studies, a NGO is a non-governmental organization which works to protect
human rights and promote development. These organizations help raise the
standard of living within developing nation states. They provide nation states
with a form of development based aid, so they can create schools, water supply
systems, and health facilities. For example, the establishment of schools
provides children with the opportunity to receive an education, and also
reduces the countries’ illiteracy rate. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement
Committee is a NGO that has provided health care services to the citizens of
Bangladesh. The BRAC has also cooperated with the Bangladesh government to
establish disease-prevention health programs in efforts to reduce the countries
mortality rate (An intro to Global Studies, Pg77). With the use of tools like
the internet, phones, and cameras, NGOs can pressure developing nation’s states
into improving their citizens’ human rights by publicizing any forms of
injustices such as inhumane working conditions, or the forced slavery seen
within countries like in Africa, in regards to the extraction of “blood”
diamonds. Therefore, this exposure attracts the attention of powerful nation
states and IGOs, and they force the nation state to change its practices and create
laws to protect rights of citizens. This can be seen within the creation of the
Clean Blood Act. The United States and the United Nations prevented the importation
and export of conflict diamonds, conflict diamonds are diamonds that where
mined through the use of forced labor. Thus this exposure by NGOs forces these developing
nation states to become better global participants because they are required to
create laws that prevent the institution of slavery and protect the human rights
of citizens such as their right to freedom and freedom of speech. These
developing nations are also required to create an economy based on humane
labor, where people are entitled to fair wages and safe working conditions. Thus
this new reformation of laws and institutions helps raise the living conditions
of citizens resulting in conflict free and prosperous nation state.                       

            Overall,
the nation state continues to be the most international actor within our
globalized world. The international power of nation states was seen within the
era of imperialism in the 19th and 20th centuries. As
international organizations emerged within the mid-twentieth century, nation
states and international originations have been working together to make the
nation state system more powerful and a better international participant within
our globalized world.  Globalization results
in the destruction of any barriers that impedes the global diffusion of people,
religion, cuisine, technology, ideologies, and products. It is through
globalization that we are able to travel to different nation states around the
world and experience the different cuisines, traditions, and religions people
practice. Our ability to look-pass each other’s’ religious, political, and ethic
differences allows us to immigrate and settle down in different nation states
without having the fear of being judge or deprived of human rights. The main purpose
of globalization is to keep the conflicts among nation states at a minimum
level, and to promote fair trade and practices. As a result, we get the
creation of one global nation state made up of all the peaceful nation states,
and in one globalized market economy. Therefore, within this globalized and
connected world everyone is entitled to equal rights: the right to fair trade,
right to freedom, the right to the access of clean water and food, the right to
be fairly represented by your government, and the right of freedom of speech. As
we globalized, we become more interconnected with another and final become
equal.