Introduction proteins,cell and organs . Aside from the

Introduction to the immune system:The immune system protects the body from harmful things in the environment and is essential for survival as the body is exposed to damaging things everyday. It is made up of different proteins,cell and organs . Aside from the nervous system, it is the most complex system that the human body has. When the body is attacked by something our body’s immune system attacks it, this is called an immune response.An immune response is the reaction of cells when they discover a unknown substance in the body. It recognizes and responds to the antigens in the body.  Antigens are substances, which are usually proteins, on the surfaces of cells, viruses, bacteria and fungi. In our body cells there are proteins which contain antigens. However our body knows not to attack them because they have learnt that they are normal They are two different types of immune response one of them is a nonspecific defense mechanism and it acts immediately or very quickly on the foreign substance in the body, this is called in innate immune response. The body has two lines of defence: the first line and the second. The first line of defense can be: the skin, the mucous membranes and the Natural flora. The second line of defense is the innate immune cells. The Neutrophils are the first cell type that will arrive and it will respond to anything unusual in the body. The second type of immune response is a specific response call adaptive immune response. They are specialized adaptive immune cells which have a memory and are more complex than the innate. The toxin must first have been processed. Once it has been processed it creates an army of cells to attack it. The cell type which is involved in this is a lymphocyte, specifically B and T cells. The B cells produce antibodies that are used to attack bacteria, viruses and toxins and the T cells kill the body’s own cells 1. This has a memory because it remembers what happened and this makes future responses more efficient than they were before. They do this by being exposed to the antigen then they proliferate (they expand / rapidly increase the number of cells). After this they contract and form a memory against the antigen.Multiple Sclerosis:Multiple Sclerosis is a disease of the CNS (central nervous system). It is where communication is blocked from the brain to other parts of the body this can cause weakness, numbness, a loss of muscle coordination, and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control  2. It is an autoimmune disease (where the immune system launches a defensive attack against its own tissues.) In the case of MS it is the nerve-insulating myelin that is attacked 3.  Myelin protects the nerve fibres in the central nervous system, which helps messages travel quickly and smoothly between the brain and the rest of the body. When you have MS your immune system mistakes myelin for a foreign antibody and attacks it. This is strange because your immune system normally recognises it.4 This damages the myelin and strips it off the nerve fibres either slightly or completely, leaving scars known as lesions.This damage disrupts messages travelling along nerve fibres. If the actual nerve fibres are damaged then this can increase the disability that can occur over time. Most people who develop MS start to get their first symptoms between the ages of 20-30 years old and it affects almost three times as many women as men.5 Most people who have MS have severe muscle weakness and this can affect everyday thing such as standing up and walking. Once you are diagnosed with MS it stays with you for life. The Symptoms and Treatments:Physical symptoms of MS  might commonly include vision problems, balance problems and dizziness, fatigue, bladder problems and stiffness and/or spasms.  Other symptoms might include bowel and bladder problems. Constipation is more common than incontinence for people who have MS. More signs and symptoms include: Memory and thinking difficulty, Sexual problems, Speech difficulty, Swallowing difficulty and a Tremor.6  There is no cure for MS but there are many therapies for it which can reduce the amount of pain. For example there is a treatment called disease modifying therapies, this isn’t a cure but it reduces relapses and how serious they are. Other treatments include exercise and physiotherapy which helps manage MS symptoms including fatigue and decreases the risk of a heart diseases.Another way of treating MS is called CAMs – Complementary and Alternative therapies. Some examples of CAMs are: Acupuncture, Alexander Technique (improves posture), Cannabis and Cannabis extracts – there is a treatment called Sativex (it is Cannabis based) which is legal and you can get it privately and on the NHS in Wales, Herbal medicine, Homeopathy, Massages, Mindfulness, Pilates, Reflexology, Tai Chi and Yoga.7  Moreover you diet can make a huge difference to reducing relapses, improving your mental state and overall your quality of life. There are specialized diets to help MS one of them is called the Swank diet. It consists of : low saturated fat foods, 2 portions of fruit a day, no red meat – low fat, as much white fish as you want, no oily foods. Inflammation and Disease:In order to understand the relationship between inflammation and disease it’s important to first define what we mean by these two terms. Inflammation is the body’s biological response to harmful stimuli. The signs of inflammation are : a Fever – heat, Erythema – redness, Oedema – swelling, Pain, and Loss of Function. There are two types of inflammation acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation is rapid and quick and it goes away quicker. Some examples of acute inflammation are a rash or an allergy.  However chronic inflammation is longer lasting and is mainly internal. Some examples of chronic inflammation  are some types of cancer or arthritis. Immune cells can be responsible for or contribute towards inflammation They can produce substances such as hormones : bradykinin and histamine, that cause the blood vessels and injured tissue to expand so that more blood can reach the affected area. This process can leave it red, hot and swollen.8 Disease is a very general term referring to any condition of the body, part of the body or brain that results in change or loss of function, change of appearance, discomfort, pain, reduction in quality of life, or death. It usually refers to conditions that are different to what’s considered normal or healthy. It does not refer to conditions that come as a result of a physical injury. Interestingly, what is considered to be a disease can change over time. For example osteoporosis used to be considered a normal part of the ageing process that was unavoidable but in 1994 it was redefined as a disease, that was treatable and largely avoidable, by the world health organisation.1 – Pubmed health 2 – Pubmed health . National Cancer Institute 3 – Pubmed health . National Cancer Institute 4 – MS society . About MS 5 – MS society . About MS6 – MS society . Signs and Symptoms 7 – MS society . Treatments and Therapies 8 – Pubmed health . Informed health online . What is an inflammation