Introduction long-standing limitations on the utilization of chemical

Introduction For centuries, there have been taboos against weapons, yet the utilization of toxic gas in World War I prompted the first international agreement – the 1925 Geneva Protocol –banning asphyxiating, poisonous and other gases techniques of warfare. Back to World War I, on April 22, 1915, large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. This was the start of chemical weapons in warfare. Around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. The term “Weapons of Mass Destruction”, is used to incorporate chemical, and biological weapons, which is misdirecting, politically hazardous, and can’t be advocated on grounds of military efficiency. After World War I, the international community had banned the use of chemical and biological weapons. The ban has been reinforced in 1972 and 1993 by prohibiting the development, production, and exchange of the weapons. The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), is the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production and stockpiling of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction. By speaking to a worldwide will and building up a global standard, the BWC has built confidence and deflected nations from obtaining natural weapons for over 30 years. The present advances in life sciences and biotechnology, as well as changes in the security condition, have expanded worry and concern that long-standing limitations on the utilization of chemical and biological weapons might be overlooked or disintegrated. On 29 April 1997, the organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was formally established.Currently, 189 nations have joined the CWC which represents 98% of the global population. Its mission is to implement the provisions of the CWC, and to provide protection and assistance against chemical weapons; to encourage international cooperation in the peaceful uses of chemistry, and to achieve universal membership of the OPCW. Definition of Key Terms Warfare: The activity of fighting a war, often including weapons. Weapons of Mass Destruction: A nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures such as buildings, and natural structures like mountains, or the biosphere. Biological weapons: A biological weapon uses a bacteria or virus, or in some cases toxins that come directly from bacteria, to kill people. A modern biological weapon would use a strain of bacteria or a virus that would kill thousands of people. Chemical Weapons: A chemical weapon is any weapon that uses a manufactured chemical to kill people. The first chemical weapon used effectively in wars was chlorine gas, which burns and destroys lung tissue. Geneva Protocol: A treaty that prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons in warfare. It was signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928. Furthermore, it is a protocol for the prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare.  Background Information The use of chemical weapons and chemical warfare records back thousands of years, with advanced forms presented in the manner of poisoned weapons and arrows. Techniques in chemical warfare have since improved and now in modern day circumstances is most commonly noticed in the form of gas warfare. Chemical weapons and biological weapons surely differ in the sense that chemical weapons require the use of chemicals and biological weapons involve the use of bacteria, diseases, fungi, and viruses. Yet, both are specialized forms of munitions used in modern-day warfare. Geneva Protocol In 1925 Geneva Protocol was signed, it prohibited and restricted the use of chemical weapons in warfare, as a result of public outrage. The Protocol had a number of critical deficiencies, including the way that it did not prohibit the improvement, stockpiling or production of chemical weapons. Likewise hazardous was the way that many States that ratified the Protocol maintained whatever authority is needed to utilize prohibited weapons against States that were not a party to the Protocol or as retaliation in kind if chemical weapons were used against them. Toxic and poison gasses were utilized during World War II in Nazi concentration camps and in Asia, although chemical weapons were not used on European battlefields. Major Countries and Organizations Involved China China states that it is in agreement with its BWC duties and that it has never had an active BW program. As indicated by the United States, China’s BW activities have been extensive and a 1993 State Department Compliance Report guaranteed that activities continued after China joined the BWC. The 2010 report demonstrates that little data is known about China’s activities and that recent dual-use activities may have breached the BWC. The existing framework would enable it to develop, produce, and weaponize specialists. The 2017 report does not examine China’s BWC consistence or resistance. In addition, China states that it is in compliance with the CWC. China pronounced in 1997 that it had a little offensive CW program that has now been destroyed, which has been verified by more than 400 assessments by the OPCW as of 2016. Russia Russia involved the world’s biggest chemical weapons stockpile. Almost 40,000 metric huge amounts of chemical agent, including VX, soman, sarin, mustard, lewisite, mustard- lewisite mixtures, and phosgene. Yet, Russia has announced this to the OPCW and commenced destruction. Alongside the United States, Russia got an augmentation when it was not able to complete destruction by the 2012 due date forced by the CWC. A 2016 OPCW report showed that starting at 2015, Russia had destroyed around 92% of its stockpile (around 36,7500 metric tons). On September 27, 2017, the OPCW reported that Russia finished the destruction of its chemical weapons armory. North Korea It is concluded that North Korea has possession of a vast number of chemical weapons. The country has not declared any of its research and development regarding biological weapons, although has consented both the Geneva Protocol and the BWC. However, North Korea has yet to agree to the CWC. The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) is a legally mandatory treaty that bans biological arms. After being to being negotiated and consulted in the United Nations’ disarmament forum beginning in 1969, the BWC opened for signature on April 10, 1972, and entered into force on March 26, 1975. It as of now hosts 179 states-parties and 6 signatories, and 11 states have neither signed nor approved the BWC. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) The Convention strives to eliminate a whole area of weapons of mass destruction by banning the development, creation, acquisition, storing, maintenance, exchange or utilization of chemical weapons by States Parties. States Parties, in turn, must take the essential actions to enforce that prohibition in regard to people within their field and control.  Previous Attempts to solve the Issue The international community has made two treaties: BWC (Biological Weapons Convention) and the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention). One was made by UNODA  (United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs) while the other was made by OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons). The BWC prevents the development, regulation, and production of biological weapons. Then, the UNODA held conferences every 5 years with the goal of reviewing BWC to develop and keep it up to date. These were called the Second Review Conference (1986), Third Review Conference (1991), and so on. Then in 1991, the Ad Hoc Group was formed in order devise solutions to strengthen the BWC. This group was composed of “experts” in this field of the case. Eventually, in the Seventh Review Conference (2011), the BWC made The Final Declaration in which it prohibited all uses of biological weapons unless it is for peaceful purposes; member states will condemn any forms of usage that deviates from this purpose. In 1997, a peaceful organization to ban the uses or production of chemical weapons was established: OPCW. With the birth of this organization, the CWC went into effect on April 29th, 1997. The CWC is similar to BWC, except more countries signed this treaty. All member states except for Egypt, North Korea, Israel, and South Sudan signed this treaty. Like BWC, it bans the production, usage, delivery, hoarding, and possession of chemical weapons. Also, CWC allows such chemicals only when they are used as peaceful means, another similarity with its predecessor. Possible Solutions There have just been efforts made by the international society to resolve this issue, for instance, the BWC and CWC that keep states from utilizing chemical or biological weapons. Yet, new solutions to this issue must be taken into action. It is difficult to ban or prevent all countries and states from using biological and chemical weapons during warfare. Instead, regular inspections must be undertaken to put an end to their use of biological and chemical weapons. One conceivable technique is utilize drones for air surveillance over the territories dominated by terrorists to destroy such weapons. Another conceivable measure for observing would be to utilize the UN peacekeepers that are dispatched to nations assigned by the Security Council. Representatives can “suggest” the Security Council to develop another peacekeeping system or program with a particular purpose of eliminating and preventing chemical weaponry in questioned districts. If another peacekeeping troop were to be marshaled, the huge participation of the member states would be required in choosing which nations will contribute by sending their soldiers.