In what ways did the Salic Laws protect
The Salic Law protect Frankish women in some many ways, sentencing those
people who engage in certain behaviors with respect to women, for example:
to death those who carry off a free woman (Title XIII. 7), as well as those who
act in the same way by taking an alien bondswoman (Title XIII. 9).
with monetary fines those who: rape a free born girl (Title XIII. 1), abduct
girls from a closed room or from the spinning room (Title XIII. 5), beat a
pregnant free woman and she ends up dying (Title XXIV. 3), as well as those who
kill a woman after she has begun bearing childrens (Title XXIV. 6) or after she
can’t have more kids (Title XXIV. 7). Also, any person who insults a woman by
calling her harlot and cannot prove the truthfulness of the insult will also be
sentenced in this way (Title XXX. 3).
In what ways did these laws restrict the rights
of women? Be specific!
Women’s rights are restricted in the Salic Law, as in matters of
inheritance and private property, because the portions of land will always be
received by men and women have no rights over them (Title LIX. 6).
Source: The Qur’an (c. 630 AD) by
Muhammad, translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (c. 1930)
Available free online:
Read: Surah 3 (i.e. chapter 3)
Question: According to Surah 3 of
the Koran, what did Muhammad think about Jesus and want his followers to
believe about Jesus? (Note: in some Qur’an translations, Jesus’ name is given
Throughout the Qur’an Jesus is named numerous times, naming him Jesus,
Muslims respect the figure of Jesus, Allah being the one who sent the Gospel
of Jesus, as a guide for humanity as well as the law of Moses (Qur’an 3:3)
In Surah 3 (The Family Of ‘Imran,
The House Of ‘Imran), one of the affirmations is the confirmation of his
birth of the Virgin Mary. It describes the birth of Jesus (Qur’an 3:45),
announced by the angels, as a virgin gives birth to a child by the will and
command of God, since “God creates what he wants” (Qur’an, 3:47), the
same thing that happened in the creation of Adam, who created it from dust
(Qur’an, 3:59). Therefore they believe in Jesus as a prophet of God, recognizing
Him as the “Word from Allah” (Qur’an, 3:39)
They also recognize the various miracles that Jesus performed in his
missions, such as those reported in the Qur’an, 3:49.
Also we find how Jesus in search of disciples to carry the message of
Allah, how Muslims recognize that they are messengers and helpers of Allah
What Muslims do not recognize is the crucifixion of Jesus, since they
claim that he was assumed to heaven before his death (Qur’an 3:169).
Source: Pope Urban II’s speech at
the Council of Clermont in 1095 AD, as recorded by Fulcher of Chartres (a
contemporary of Urban II)
Available free online:
Question: Did Pope Urban II
intend for the First Crusade to have any impact(s) on the Christian lands of
Western Europe? If so, how?
In Pope Urban II’s speech, Pope Urban II begins by proclaiming himself
as ambassador to realize to the servants of God an admonition, that if they do
not fulfill their duty as good Christians, they will not be rewarded by God.
Pope Urban II search for the help of all Christian servants of God,
begging them to carry their message everywhere, so that can help to the Christians
and destroy the Turks and Arabs, who were attacking and conquering lands, as a
result of their victories in battle and occupying Christian lands. It induces
them to struggle to defend their lands, promising them that those who die for
it will have the immediate forgiveness of their sins.
He argues that it cannot happen, that these races (Turks and Arabs) who
believe in demons can overcome the peoples who profess the Christian faith.
Through his speech, Pope Urban II encourages the Christian people to
come to the defense and assistance of the Greeks to recover Palestine and
eliminate the presence of Muslims, using as an excuse the search for peace and
the recovery of the Christian lands, what it will really lead to is that the
first Crusade will take place, calling all Christians in Europe to war against
the Muslims to reclaim the Holy Land (Middle East area), which had become a
point of conflict for European Christians.
Source: Summa Theologica by St.
Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274 AD), translated by English Dominican Friars (c. 1920)
Available free online:
And here (translated by Gerald
Read: Part I (Prima Pars),
Question 2, Article 3 on “Whether God exists?”
Question: What intellectual
tools, resources, and methods did the Catholic St. Thomas Aquinas use to
“prove” the existence of God?
In Part I (Prima Pars), Question
2, Article 3 on “Whether God exists?” St. Thomas Aquinas states that God’s
existence can be proved through 5 ways:
The first way is the argument from motion.It states that all things are in motion, and
this movement must be produced by something else, and then we would reach
infinity, seeking the first movement. Therefore, it is necessary to arrive at a
first generator of motion, which has not been set in motion by anyone else; and
this first generator of motion is God.
The second way is from the nature of
the efficient cause. There
is an order of efficient causes, for there is no one thing that is the effective
cause of itself. Therefore, there must be an effective first cause, which is
The third way is taken from possibility
and necessity. Things are
possible to be or not to be, and there could have been a time when nothing
existed. Therefore there must have been a first creator of the existence of
some having their own need, and this is God.
The fourth way is taken from the gradation to
be found in things. All things
can be “more” or “less”, “better” or
“worse”, but there must be a “supreme thing” that serves as
a reference model to be able to graduate and compare them. This would be God.
fifth way is taken from the governance of the world. All actions are directed towards an end, the
intelligent things being is clear in his way of acting, but there are things
without intelligence that still act for an end and achieve it. Therefore, there
must be an intelligent being by whom all natural things that lack intelligence
are directed to their end; and this