In and What factors enhance or constrain reflection?

In a research by Le Cornu (2009), she examined the
role that professional experiences (practicum) can play in building resilience
in pre-service teachers. In particular, it focused on a learning communities
model of professional experience with its emphasis on relationships and its
attention to the complex and dynamic interactions between individuals and their
student teaching contexts.  She concluded
that learning communities model of professional experience has the potential to
contribute to developing resilience in pre-service teachers and it does this by
providing opportunities for them to participate in a wide variety of collegial
relationships, including reciprocal learning relationships with peers, which
are underpinned by the notions of mutuality, empowerment and the development of
courage.

Castro, Kelly, and Shih  (2010) investigated the strategies
of resilience exhibited by fifteen novice teachers hired in high-needs areas,
such as in urban and rural contexts and in special education. The results of
this study revealed that teachers used a variety of strategies, including
problem-solving, help-seeking, managing difficult relationships, and seeking
rejuvenation or renewal. By utilizing these strategies, novice teachers were assisted
in building support and additional resources; however, the burden for success
and securing additional resources fell on teachers themselves. Moreover, the
researchers in this study revealed that resilient teachers demonstrated agency
in the process of overcoming adversity.

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In another study, Clarke (1995) examined the
applicability of Donald Schön’s notion of reflective practice in teachers
development in practicum settings for student teachers. The research was guided
by three questions: What precipitates reflection?, What do student teachers
reflect upon?, and What factors enhance or constrain reflection? Detailed
framework of case studies on four science student teachers in a 13-week
practicum were defined. Fifteen reflective themes were reported across the four
cases, and it was possible to identify up to four precipitants for each theme.
In all, 47 factors were reported that either enhanced or constrained
reflection. He suggested four strategies for improving student teacher
reflection and two refinements to Schön’s conception of reflective practice for
use in practicum settings.

In a study by Kayapinar (2016), he  proposed a new EFL reflective practitioner
development model for an in-service program that was based on the principles of
reflection, and also measured teachers’ reflective and self-efficacy development.
Focusing on promoting practitioners’ reflective abilities, this model
emphasizes building self-efficacy. The suggested model was assessed by
collecting quantitative and qualitative data. The findings proposed that the
model would be effective for educators to use as it facilitates and improves
teachers’ abilities to reflect and their overall self-efficacy.