Human indicated by Spencer, first, human migration can

Human beings are believed to have spread to all over the world from Africa. The spread of humans all around the world compares to the spread of language. The spread of human beings is compared to how a language spreads across with an example being the English language, as indicated by this quote, “No language has spread as widely as English, and it continues to spread” (Hitchings). There are some similarities and many noticeable differences between the two. There is a similarity between human migration and language spreading. Scientist discovered that human spreading globally came from central Africa, the first wave across the ocean. Then the second wave is spread all around the world. Similarly, language diffusion also covered with the ocean shore, and then spread quickly to different places in the world. On the other side, there are many significant differences between human and language spreading. As indicated by Spencer, first, human migration can trace from DNA, but the language is hard to track back from DNA sequencing technology. Secondly, the spread of humans is because they need to survive and adapted the uncertain environment while the spread of language from nineteen-century is mostly from the internal drive of Industrial Revolution, advanced technology, and political expansion.

From scientific researchers, it is believed that a group of the early man migrated from central Africa. A long-reigning theory argues that the modern human species arose from sub-Saharan Africa and replaces the archaic species without interbreeding with them. However, recent studies of the modern DNA, shows that the archaic human and the modern human from Africa did interbreed hence the thriving of the homo sapiens as they migrated to new lands (Hammer 66). Studies of the patterns of genetic variation in the modern-day population helps one to understand the evolutionary origin of human beings, as indicated by this quote, “…early Homo sapiens mated with other human species and hint that such interbreeding played a key role in the triumph of our kind” (Hammer 66). From the genetic research, it was found that the current generation people carry DNA that is inherited from the Neanderthals and archaic human. This proofs that the Homo sapiens mated with other species to produce a fertile offspring that was able to spread the genetic legacy through a lot of generations (Hammer 67). From this quote, “Homo erectus, arose in Africa some two million years ago and began spreading out of that continent and into other regions of the Old World shortly thereafter,” it’s clear that people have been spreading from one place to another, just like the English language (Hammer 68). Eventually, the offspring spread to all other parts of the world as they continued to reproduce. Presumably, all people alive might be related. The different tribes present today may have resulted from our distance relative who migrated from central Africa. The group of early men is believed to have migrated due to various reasons.

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Among the reasons that led to the migration of these people are climatic changes. The weather in the place they lived may not have been conducive enough (Spencer).

The climate of an area determines the growth of plants and food availability. Apart from food, environment affected the early man’s living conditions. Climatic challenges for example floods led to migration. Additionally, the new species migrated to explore places that would provide them with the handmade tools they used to make their work easier. People in present times also move in search of places that would provide better living conditions for them.

Consequently, the migration of the people led to the development of human being, am idea conformed by the quote, “The roots of modern humans trace back to not just a single ancestral population in Africa but to populations throughout the Old World” (Hammer 71). The people had to adapt to the changes in the environment they moved to. In the process of adaptation; the early man was able to develop into modern human species. Among the changes that resulted from the adjustment is the functioning of the brain. Although modern human share particular physical features, some distinctive features inherited from the archaic ancestors still persists. It could have resulted from the offspring’s traits that helped them adapt to the local environment (Hammer 70). They gained the ability and capability of doing things differently. Additionally, these migrations of the early people laid a significant foundation for the present-day technology advancement. For example, the use of the handmade tools out of stone to do work easier relates to the modern use of the machines. These people had the current abilities, but their decentralization of power by migration led to the slow mustering of the capabilities (Hitchings).

Human migration to all over the world compares to the spreading of English language. What this means is that human migration and the spread of English have a relationship; “In the twenty-first century the world is becoming more urban and more middle class, and the adoption of English is a symptom of this” (Hitchings). Like migration, the spread of English language is a symptom of modernization. At present day, many people are willing to learn how to speak and communicate in English. Continued spread of English is evident as the world continues to become modern. The language is prominent in different areas such as medicine, education, commerce, science, and technology. Many people believe that linguistic capital is evenly proportional to economic wealth. The growth of the economy cannot take place without communication. There are different people from different backgrounds that make up an economy. The people can only relate if they share the same language.

            Use of English as the standard language facilitates the growth of the economy. People can trade with others from different countries hence globalization. However, English has often been associated with imperialism. These follow the use of English as the language of communication by the imperial overlord (Hitchings). People who lived in countries that had their political and economy controlled by the colony finds endurance of English language stressful. People find it hard to accept English because of its relation to imperialism though many still learn and use English to communicate.

Notably, during colonization, the language of the colonialist that is English, dominated the language of the landowners. English led to the extinction of the people’s language. In such places where the colonialist ‘language was crude to the local language; the people still sharply feel the legacy left behind by English. Colonialism led to linguistic imperialism. 

English is vital in modern method of generating profit. Technology advancement has dramatically influenced modernity in the world today as this quote indicates, “The embrace of English in the world’s two most populous countries means that the language is changing” (Hitchings). English becomes essential in that; it helps people to be able to operate technology. It marks the function of English as an economic utility. Profit making organizations, for example, the financial institutes and industries use English to communicate. In the modern world, one has to learn English to be in a position to carry out activities that make profit globally. According to Hitchings, the act of people willing to sacrifice their financial resources to teach English with the belief that linguistic capital is equal to the economic capital and this shows the essence of English in making profits. The core of English in operating technology indicates that English has dramatically brought about centralization of power. It is the language that is used to bring together different countries politically. English enables economic activity and also a social relationship between people of various nations.

In conclusion, there is a relationship between the migration of the people and spreading of English language. Movement contributed to the growth of technology which in turn improves spreading of English. The similarity between human spreading and the language spreading is that both results in modernization. However, there is a difference between the two. The human spread is a contributing factor to decentralization of power while English spreading leads to centralization of power.