GEORGE the potential to either fuel or impede

GEORGE POKU ODURO 10537588RESEARCH PROPOSALTHE USE OF REMOTE SENSING/GIS TO STUDY URBANIZATION IN GHANA; A CASE STUDY OF KUMASI (2006, 2008 & 2010)1.0. INTRODUCTIONUrbanization can be defined as the annual rate of change of the percentage of people living in urban areas, or the difference between the growth rate of urban population and that of total population (Hope and Lekorwe, 1999). Urbanization is a demographic, ecological, sociological and economic phenomenon that concentrates population in urban areas and has the potential to either fuel or impede growth and development of these areas. (Cobbinah, Erdiaw-Kwasie and Amoateng 2015)1.1. URBANIZATION IN GHANAAlong with many African countries, Ghana is rapidly urbanising and undergoing an intensive phase of urbanisation. Migration is causing some district capitals to be growing at double the rate of other towns and cities. Such growth is mostly due to the city’s favourable location within the transport network and its economic importance. Other considerations in the growth rate of urbanization in Ghana relates to the internal growth of cities resulting from high birth rates (Ebert, 2000). As a result, the proportion of people living in urban localities in Ghana increased persistently from 23 percent in 1960 to 29 percent in 1970 and 32 percent in 1984. It further increased to 44 percent in 2000. Also, the ratio of urban to rural population has been rising steadily. From 0.30 percent in 1960, it rose to 0.41 percent in 1970 and 0.47 percent in 1984 and further to 0.78 percent in 2000 (Ghana Statistical Service, 2005). This is an indication that the population of Ghana is gradually being urbanized. In addition, the tempo of urbanization measured as the difference between annual population growth rate of urban and rural areas serve as added evidence of the rate of urbanization in Ghana.1.2 URBANIZATION IN KUMASIThis project seeks to build on previous studies on urbanization in Kumasi. The city is located 270km west of the capital, Accra, Ghana in the Ashanti region and is known to be the second fastest growing city in the country from data recorded by the Ghana Statistical Service. The city has a growth rate of 5.7 per cent per annum and has grown 73.6 per cent in the first decade of the millennium. Almost half of the Ashanti region’s population can be found in this city. This is due to the presence of one of the largest commercial centres in the country makes it highly attractive. Also, the city’s major transportation hub and its arterial roads provide access to every part of the city and beyond. Its status as a commercial hub to central and northern Ghana serves as a “pull” factor for migrants from all over the country. Rapid urbanization has contributed to slum development, congestion, mass unemployment, pressure on available facilities in the area. Other problems include environmental degradation, poor housing and rising crime rates. But what is not known is the extent and impact of urbanization in Kumasi. These issues and more are what this study seeks to delve into as well as find credible postulations. 2.0. PROBLEM STATEMENTThe main aim of this study is to examine the extent and impact of urbanization in Kumasi by remote sensing, over a decade.  • Extent – the size and growth rate of Urbanization in the City.• Impact – the effects and influence this concept has had on the Kumasi people.According to Lerise et al (2004), the general characteristics of rapid urbanization experienced by most sub-Saharan countries, such as Ghana are rampant changes in land and building uses. The peaceful environment characterizing the Kumasi Metropolis coupled with its relatively endowed natural resources, especially at its periphery, as well as its commercially-oriented economy has acted as a ‘pull’ factor for migrants causing increase in its urbanization (Adarkwa and Post, 2001). Therefore, better management of land resources is essential for the sustainability and improvement in the quality of life in the city of Kumasi (Bach, 2001). As this may seem as a recommendation, it is more likely to look at the rate at which urbanization has grown with respect to its extent, and most importantly seek to know how this growth has led to numerous impacts in the lives of the people in Kumasi. Therefore, the study aims to reveal in-depth information on an analysis and assessment of the extent and impact of urbanization in Kumasi with remote sensing, which includes a step by step approach on the methodology, drawing comparisons from the years 2006 and 2016.3.0. RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe main objective of this study is to measure the rate of urbanization in Kumasi over the past decade by remote sensing. This provided specific objectives which are to;? Assess the extent of urbanization in terms of size.? Analyse the impact of urbanization in the area.? Investigate the Urbanization pattern in Kumasi.4.0. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The conceptual framework is showed above. It displays this project’s structure in what it seeks to solve and the simple yet strategic approach. By researching on the urbanization phenomenon, the mindset of the locals will be known. This will be done by creating questionnaires for a focus group as well as one-on-one interviews. Reports from government institutions that deal with the city’s urban development will also be reviewed. Analysis from the results will determine how the locals feel about the rate of urbanization.The extent – size and growth rate of urbanization in Kumasi – will be determined via remote sensing. Satellite images from Landsat 7 will be analyzed to view the size of the rate of urbanization in the city. Data will be collected will be obtained from the Statistical Service in Kumasi as well as locals to assess the growth rate in the city.5.0. METHODOLOGYThe methodology is basically a system of methods used in a particular area of study. It gives a vivid understanding on how to go about a particular type of study, making it easier for the researcher. More importantly, it entails series of steps which are followed to help arrive at what one is actually looking for. These steps include type of data required for the work, source of data and finally the data analysis. 5.1. TYPE OF DATA REQUIRED• Three sets of satellite images of Kumasi over five years. 2006, 2008 and 2010.• The data required also includes the impact of urbanization on the local people and how the adverse effects can be tackled. This information will be obtained via questionnaires designed for both focus groups and one-on-one interviews of locals who have resided in the area for the past twelve years or more and reports of government institutions that oversee the development and growth of the area.5.2. SOURCE OF DATAThe satellite images which are the main focus for the project will be downloaded from the United States Geological Survey website (usgs.earthexplorer.gov) with reference to Kumasi. This website provides images of different types of satellites for remote sensing purposes, but the main focus will be on LANDSAT satellite images. Two different years will be selected based on the time difference.  This is to make sure that, the changes which would be recorded would be reasonable enough for the study since a lot can change within this time period. It would also provide better information for further analytical purposes.The second type of data was also obtained from secondary data sources. This secondary information was obtained by consulting other research papers, journals, articles, reports from government departments and e-materials to find out more information about the area of interest.5.3 DATA ANALYSIS6.0. RATIONALE Kumasi has attracted a large population because it is the most commercialized center in the region and partly because it is the regional capital. Other reasons include the centrality of Kumasi as a nodal city with major arterial routes linking it to other parts of the country and the fact that it is an educational centre. The changes occurring in land use in Kumasi are becoming rampant. The major cause of this change is rapid urbanization of the city. This factor is having a negative impact on the form and structure of the city of Kumasi. Moreover, there are few vacant plots of land in the study area. This means that adjoining lands in terms of industrial and open spaces are being evaded as an intervention for residential land use. Ultimately farmlands and reserves are being encroached upon, living the ”Garden” City a ”Concrete” City. The change in land and building uses is also exerting pressure on facilities available in the area.Furthermore, the better management of land resources is essential for sustainability and for improving the quality of life of people living in the city.The Kumasi Metropolis is being used as a case study to serve both practical and academic purposes. Practically, this work aims to present information that can assist policy makers and planners to formulate and evaluate development strategies that seek to address effects of urban expansion on livelihoods and also to bring to focus areas of needed interventions. Thus local and international organizations interested in helping local people to better cope with the effects of urbanization will benefit from this study.  Academically, the study adds to knowledge by examining the extent and effects of urban expansion on the livelihood of the local people in the various communities in Kumasi and strategies adopted by indigenes to cope with urban expansion. The findings of the study will also serve as a reference material to any other person who will undertake similar study in the field to help him or her know the importance of remote sensing in urban studies or any kind of field study.?REFERENCES• Adarkwa, Kwafo K. and Johan, Post (2001). The Fate of the Tree: Planning and Managing the Development of Kumasi. Accra, Woeli Publishing Services.• D.A. Stow et al. / Applied Geography 71 (2016) 32-43• J. Kleemann et al. / Landscape and Urban Planning 165 (2017) 280–294• Lerise, Fred, John Lupala, Manoris Meshack and Robert Kiunsi (2004). Managing Urbanisation and Risk Accumulation Processes: Cases From Dares Salaam.  Tanzania, University College of Lands and Architectural Studies• Mandere, M. N., Ness B., Anderberg, S. (2010), Peri-urban Development, Livelihood Change and Household Income: A Case Study of Peri-urban Nyahururu, Kenya, Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, vol. 2 (5) ISSN-21412154, Academic Journal: pp 73-79.• Mutizwa-Mangiza, N.D. (2009) A New Role for Urban Planning in a Changing Environmental Climate, Royal Town Planning Institute, London.• P.B. Cobbinah, R. Niniminga-Beka/ Cities 60 (2017) 388-401• Thomas, S. (2008), Urbanisation as a Driver of Change, The Arup Journal, 43 (1) pp 58-66, Cardiff, UK.• UNFPA (2007) ‘Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth’, State of World Population 2007, New York: UNFPA.• Yankson, P.W.K. (2006), Urbanisation, Industrialisation and National Development: Challenges and Prospects of Economic Reform and Globalisation, Accra, Ghana Universities Press.