Tourism has emerged as the universe ‘s largest and fastest turning industry. Tourists are going around the universe for assorted grounds. Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization, the figure of international tourers reachings increased by over 4 % in 2011 to 980 million and it is estimated to make 1 billion by the terminal of 2012 ( www.unwto.org ) .
Numerous states try to work the touristry industry as they are cognizant of its possible to convey development and to excite the economic system. Tourism has become a cardinal beginning of income and employment. However, there is no uncertainty that touristry has important impacts on finish countries. With the rapid growing of touristry, the impacts of touristry development have become more seeable in the society. Mauritius is no exclusion. Mauritius has undergone rapid touristry development, largely in coastal countries ; and as a effect local occupants have to get by with the increased concentration of touristry and its impacts, both positive and negative. In an effort to convey 2 million tourers to Mauritius, more hotels and touristry substructures are being developed. Besides, it is improbable that environmental and societal considerations will be given much weight in the determination doing procedure by governments. Consequently, local occupants are faced with concerns about whether the finish will be able to manage several touristry equipments and whether touristry developments will convey public assistance to them.
Residents have differing perceptual experiences of, and attitudes towards touristry development and equal range is non given to occupants to show their positions about the cost and benefit of touristry. Harmonizing to Brunt ve Courtney ( 1999:494 ) , it is indispensable to hold a sound estimation of local people ‘s perceptual experience of, and attitudes towards touristry, for its successful patterned advance. People ‘s perceptual experience usually determines their behaviours. Therefore, it is of import to cognize how occupants perceive touristry development in their country because their behaviours towards tourer and touristry will hold major effects on the success of the touristry industry. In the words of Allen et Al. ( 1998, p.16 ) “ for a touristry based economic system to prolong itself in local communities, the occupants must be willing spouses in the procedure. Their attitudes towards touristry and perceptual experiences of its impacts on community life must be continuously evaluated. ” It is besides a critical manner to minimise the negative impacts of touristry and maximise support for the touristry industry. Therefore, if local people hold positive perceptual experience about touristry, they will accept the presence of visitants and act decently with them, therefore they render support for the touristry industry every bit good as heightening tourer ‘s experience. On the other manus, if occupants perceive touristry negatively, they will follow negative attitudes towards tourer and touristry. Furthermore, they will oppose touristry developments in their country. If this sort of state of affairs prevails, both finish countries and touristry industry will endure.
Therefore, it became of import to analyze the impacts of touristry on local people and their attitudes towards touristry development. The figure of researches conducted to research occupant ‘s perceptual experiences of, and attitudes towards touristry development ( Jurowski, Uysal, ve Williams, 1997 ; Yoon, Gursoy, Chen, 2000 ; Doganay, 2001 ; Usal 1990 ) , testifies the importance of the subject.
Besides, it is of import to develop the industry in a sustainable mode. Several surveies have suggested that a finish will non be able to nurture touristry if it is non supported by its occupants ( Ahn, Lee & A ; Shafer 2002 ; Twining – Ward & A ; Butler 2002 ; Mc Cool, Moisey & A ; Nickeeson 2001 ) . Likewise, an apprehension of occupant ‘s perceptual experiences and attitudes towards touristry development is necessary so as to program and develop touristry in a sustainable manner. Generally, occupants should be involved in determinations that will impact their lives. Mauritius every bit good has taken the enterprises to develop the touristry industry in a sustainable manner. However, the inquiry which rises is whether local occupants are truly involved in the determination doing procedure of touristry developments. Recently, in Mauritius occupants are mobilising and raising their voices against touristry development in their country. Both at Souillac and Calodyne, occupants are holding concerns about the undertakings of “ Domaine du Gris Gris ” and “ lupus erythematosuss Creolias ” severally. The occupants are showing anxiousness about environmental issues, their ain benefits every bit good as the deficiency of community ‘s engagement in the developments. Furthermore, it is to be noted that the touristry industry has been developed in an uncontrolled and unplanned manner and has affected the economic, socio-cultural and environmental facets of local communities. If actions are non taken at grass root degree, so the touristry industry will confront desperate effects. As such, the above issues have lead to the survey of community ‘s perceptual experience of touristry development in Trou aux Biches with the purpose of analysing the impacts that occupants are confronting from touristry development and to cognize their sentiments on touristry every bit good as to determine feelings about future touristry development.
1.1. STUDY OBJECTIVES
The chief aim of the survey is to measure and understand the perceptual experiences of occupants of Trou aux Biches in relation to touristry development in their community. Besides, the undermentioned issues will be analysed exhaustively:
The positions of locals towards the current degree of touristry in Trou aux Biches. The occupants will be asked about their sentiments about future touristry development in their community.
How touristry development has impacted the local community at the socio-cultural and economic degree. The socio-cultural alterations that occupants encountered in the past old ages will be explored. Tourism is known as occupation Godhead and generates gross. This research will analyze the employment chances created by touristry and measure how far the income earned from touristry related occupations has improved their life criterions. Besides, to analyze the extent to which occupants are concerned about environmental jobs originating from touristry development.
The factors that influence the perceptual experiences of the occupants towards touristry development will be examined and their support for future development.
1.2 STUDY AREA
Trou aux Biches traditionally a fishing small town is located on the North West seashore of Mauritius. Trou aux Biches was named after a pool where cervid used to imbibe H2O ( LeMauricien.com, 2012 ) . Some decennaries before, Trou aux Biches was undeveloped and occupants were gaining their life by turning veggies, fishing and agriculture. Since the constitution of the Trou aux Biches Village hotel in 1971, the full country of Trou aux Biches and its locality were wholly transformed. Consequently several hotels and eating houses saw daytime. Agricultural lands were occupied by belongings developers while forest countries were cleared to do topographic point for houses and cottages. Since so the population of Trou aux Biches multiplied and harmonizing to the Census 2000, the small town shelters about 1700 dwellers.
As such there has been a alteration in the occupational construction of the small town and occupants started to prosecute in touristry related occupations. The touristry industry represents a major economic activity for the dwellers of Trou aux Biches. The Trou aux Biches beach is really good known amongst tourers and locals every bit good, for its white sand, turquoise and crystal clear H2O which has attracted a considerable figure of tourers to the part. Furthermore the Trou aux Biches beach was awarded the universe ‘s prima beach finish in 2011, therefore doing it more popular on the international forepart. Besides, the Trou aux Biches Resort & A ; Spa which offers 5 star luxury installations helped in the rapid development of the small town. With the development of touristry in Trou Aux Biches, employment chances rose and tourism-related commercial activities expanded at an increasing rate. Tourist stores, eating houses, shopping countries, casino, and beach Villas were constructed and became a beginning of gaining for the small towns. Trou aux Biches is spread outing quickly and it is still undergoing several alterations. Recently public substructures such as Community Health Centre has been improved while new route and shopping countries for enterprisers have cropped up, therefore demoing the importance that the province is giving to the development of Trou aux Biches. However, it is of import to oppugn issues such as occupant ‘s dependance on touristry every bit good as how far the part will be able to prolong touristry developments. However, Trou aux Biches is no longer an stray and secondary small town. “ It is now on the mainstream of development and exposed to the universe ” ( Lemauricien.com, 2012 ) .
Trou aux Biches, without any uncertainty, contributes to the Mauritanian touristry industry and it is a beginning of tourer attractive force for the island. Therefore it is imperative to guarantee that Trou aux Biches is developed in a safe and appropriate mode where the resources of the part are preserved and there is consensus among assorted stakeholders sing any touristry development in the part.
As such, taking into consideration the developments and betterments in Trou aux Biches, it is a good chance to analyze the issues behind touristry development in Trou aux Biches.
Chapter Two: LITERATURE REVIEW
In general, community ‘s perceptual experiences of and attitudes towards touristry development have been widely researched. The rating of occupants ‘ perceptual experiences is valuable in understanding the impacts of touristry while the consequences are considered to be cardinal inputs in the planning and development of touristry. Byrd et Al. ( 2009 ) explains that touristry development has the ability to impact on the lives of local communities, both in negative and positive ways. Likewise, touristry has the possible to convey the best and worst scenarios in a finish. The consciousness of occupant ‘s perceptual experience of and attitude towards touristry development helps in effectual touristry planning. Chen ( 2001 ) besides explains that it is of import to cognize occupant ‘s attitudes, perceptual experiences and outlooks from touristry impacts and its development so as to place the existent issues in order to follow suited policies and actions. Finally, the touristry industry will derive support from the local occupants which is indispensable for the sustainable development of touristry ( Jurowski vd. , 1997:3 ; DoAYan, 2004:104 ) . Additionally, the positive attitudes of occupants are indispensable for visitant satisfaction.
The manner how occupants assess the benefits and costs of touristry plays a function in finding their perceptual experiences of and attitudes towards touristry. The chapter starts with a high spot of touristry development in Mauritius. Besides some penetrations about sustainable touristry are given and the impacts of touristry are explored. Several theories have been designed to assist explicate occupants ‘ perceptual experiences of and attitudes towards touristry development and its impacts. Models such as Butler ‘s Tourism Area Life Cycle ( 1980 ) and Doxey ‘s Irridex Model ( 1975 ) are briefly discussed and the present work considers the Social Exchange Theory ( Ap, 1992 ) which has been identified as being influential in explicating occupants ‘ perceptual experiences of touristry impacts. In add-on, the factors which influence the perceptual experiences of occupants are besides discussed.
Section 2.1 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MAURITIUS
Tourism is an of import economic pillar for Mauritius. The touristry industry took off as from 1970 in Mauritius and the basic touristry merchandises were 3S ( Sun, Sea and Sand ) . Gradually hotels mushroomed over the island and Mauritius established itself as a finish for upscale luxury hotels. Mauritius is by and large known for its warm cordial reception. The island provides several beach resorts and possesses a scope of man-made and natural resources. On his portion the authorities encouraged investings in the touristry industry and inducements were given to both local and international investors. During 1990, Mauritius faced enormous economic roar. Lots of infrastructural developments took topographic point, unemployment degree was really low and there was a rise in criterion of life. The ambient state of affairs in Mauritius made it possible for investors to come and put in Mauritius. By that clip the island already made its repute on the international forepart. However, by the terminal of 1990, the finish started to endure and bring forth negative impacts. Pollution and rising prices were amongst the negative impacts of touristry. The grounds were the deficiency of environmental control plans, deficient planning in footings of hotels, deficiency of control over infinite allotment for building and hapless waste and H2O direction. The negative impacts started to be felt and Grand Bay largely faced the jobs of harlotry, offense rates and deficiency of infinite among others. However, the touristry industry registered continual growing.
The Mauritius Tourism Promotion Authority and Tourism Employees Welfare Fund were established to oversee and command the touristry industry. In 2003, the Tourism Authority became operational with the purpose of modulating touristry on the island. The island has besides a National Tourism policy which emphasizes on low impact and high disbursement touristry. A Tourism Development Plan was besides set up due to the impacts of touristry every bit good as it was seen as a manner of reconstituting the function of the private sector in the touristry industry. However, the jobs that Mauritius faced in the past became more important. Additionally, international events such as the Financial Crisis and rise in fuel monetary values impacted on Mauritius. As from 2010 tourer reachings started diminishing. The growing rate decreased to 3 – 5 % . Furthermore, Mauritius was affected by increased competition from Seychelles and Maldives. Besides, there is the issue of handiness to the island because of the jobs faced by Air Mauritius. Very frequently a mismatch between the assorted touristry constituents can be noticed. For illustration, the figure of suites offered is non matched with the air capacity, i.e. the national bearer does non convey adequate tourers to hold full tenancy of suites.
Not long ago, the Integrated Resort Scheme undertaking was designed for the development and sale of residential belongings to non-residents in Mauritius. Recently, the Hotel Classification system was implemented with the intent of developing the adjustment sector in an appropriate mode. Nowadays, touristry governments are concentrating on advancing Mauritius in different parts of the universe, with more accent in the Asiatic parts. On his portion, Air Mauritius has devised a restructuring program to reexamine its schemes so as to be able to confront the crisis which the universe air hose industries are meeting.
In 2011, tourer reachings have somewhat increased by 3 % ensuing in an addition in touristry grosss besides, as shown in the tabular array below. However, tenancy rates in hotels are still dead despite all the selling attempts being done by touristry governments to convey in more tourers.
Table 1 Tourism statistics for the twelvemonth 2010 and 2011 are as follows.
39,456 Million Rupees
42,845 Million Rupees
Number of hotels
Number of suites
Employment in tourer industry
( Source Central Statistics Office, hypertext transfer protocol: //statsmauritius.gov.mu )
2.1.2 Sustainable TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Tourism developments are known to convey considerable negative impacts on the local populations. The protection of the nature and the public assistance of communities have been the cardinal concerns. By and large, community ‘s sentiments are non considered by developers while taking determinations and besides, determinations taken seldom reflects community ‘s involvement. As such finishs should be developed in such a manner where current resources are preserved for future usage. Therefore sustainable development of touristry is seen as an appropriate attack for the endurance of touristry. Besides, it is of import to see all the factors that will impact the sustainability of
touristry developments. Sustainable touristry Development has been defined as follows “ sustainable touristry development guidelines and direction patterns are applicable to all signifiers of touristry in all types of finishs, including mass touristry and the assorted niche touristry sections. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural facets of touristry development, and a suited balance must be established between these three dimensions to vouch its long-run sustainability ” ( Source UNWTO, 2004 ) . Sustainable touristry should guarantee that developments should convey benefits to both local population and visitants.
The impacts that touristry has on the host community should be taken into consideration. This is because the long term sustainable development of touristry will be affected when its impacts lead to annoyance and bitterness in the host community. Furthermore, the host community has been identified as a major stakeholder of touristry development and its active engagement along with other stakeholders in the determination devising procedure is of import for the long term sustainability of touristry. The support of the local population is indispensable for the sustainability of touristry. The sentiments of occupants towards any touristry development should be continuously assessed in order to understand their demands and to derive their support for touristry developments.
The sustainable touristry construct has besides been applied in Mauritius. The Maurice Ile Durable enterprise was adopted with the purpose of protecting the environment and to set the construct of sustainable touristry into pattern. Several steps have been applied with the purpose of continuing current resources. The Mauritius Tourism Promotion Authority has come up with a Code of Ethics for the touristry sector. Besides, touristry developments should now be capable to an Environmental Impact appraisal to measure the impacts that would emerge from the developments.
However, the manner the construct of sustainable touristry is applied in Mauritius raises concerns. Local governments are seen to be really much concerned about environment protection. Nevertheless, sustainable touristry development is non merely about continuing the environment. In order to accomplish sustainable touristry development, three cardinal aims should be taken into consideration, which are the economic, societal and environmental aims. For case, there should be efficient usage of resources while the quality of life of occupants is enhanced and the local civilizations are preserved, and the limited resources are used in a prudent mode every bit good. Furthermore, the active engagement of all stakeholders in determination devising is of import. Hence, it is of import to inquire oneself how far touristry developments in Mauritius are sustainable.
Therefore, for touristry to prolong itself in the hereafter, Choi and Sirakaya ( 2006 ) explained that “ a holistic attack to sustainable touristry development should be ecologically responsible, socially compatible, culturally appropriate, politically just, technologically supportive and, eventually, economically feasible for the host community ” . As such, the negative impacts will be dealt with suitably and the positive impacts of touristry will be maximized.
Section 2.2 IMPACT ANALYSIS
In general, touristry impacts are categorized as economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts. By and big, occupants of local communities face the effects of any touristry development within their community. The impacts can be good or damaging and how the impacts are perceived depends on the value opinion of the perceiver. Apparently, touristry impacts are seen in finish countries where tourers interact with the local environment, economic system, civilization and the society ( Mason, 2003 ) . Wall ( 1997 ) and Mason ( 2003 ) outlined the major factors which influence touristry impacts and they are the type of activities tourers engage in, the location, the figure and type of visitants, how old is the touristry industry and at what clip of the twelvemonth touristry occurs in the country. Likewise, Davison ( 1996 ) indicates that the properties of the host population and the degree of interaction between hosts and invitees besides determine touristry impacts. However, it is of import to observe that tradeoffs exist in relation to touristry impacts, that is, despite confronting the negative impacts of touristry, occupants continue to accept tourers due to the desirable positive impacts originating from touristry activities. Residents ‘ reactions to tourism depend on how they perceive the impacts. Hence, it became of import to measure the impacts of touristry from occupants ‘ positions. Therefore, in this subdivision we will look at the impacts that the touristry industry has on local communities.
2.2.3 ECONOMIC IMPACTS
Finishs have seen touristry as an appropriate vehicle to hike their economic system. Tourism is known to lend to national income and convey public assistance. Job creative activity, incomes, revenue enhancement coevals, foreign exchange net incomes and outgos are perceived as the chief economic impacts of touristry ( Archer, 1996 ; Wagner, 1997 ; Mules, 2001 ) . In add-on, touristry stimulates the development of basic substructures, assistance in the enlargement of domestic industries, attracts foreign investors and encourages the usage of engineering ( Upchurch & A ; Teivane, 2000 ) . Furthermore, revenue enhancement grosss generated from touristry endeavors help to better the balance of payment of the state. On the other manus, Giannoni & A ; Maupertus ( 2007 ) explains that trust on foreign investing, addition in monetary values and low instruction trap for locals are among the distinguished negative economic impacts of touristry.
Ashe ( 2005 ) explains that touristry can be an of import component for community development. Job creative activity or decreased unemployment is known to be the chief benefits of touristry development. The touristry industry, being a service industry, is labour intensive and touristry development at local or regional degree is known to bring forth employment chances, direct and indirect, to the local occupants. By and large, touristry development in less developed part absorbs much of the labour force. However, the employment generated by touristry is seasonal, unskilled and low-paid ( Vaughan & A ; long, 1982 ) . It is besides of import to see the type of occupations that are attributed to the local occupants. Harmonizing to Middleton and Hawkins ( 1998 ) , the poorly-paid boring occupations are given to the local occupants while non-residents are opted for direction places. Questions besides arise whether the income earned from touristry related occupations are sufficient to better the criterion of life of the people concerned. Besides, the seasonality factor which prevails over the touristry industry makes touristry employees feel insecure about their occupations. Furthermore, the touristry industry brings a alteration in the occupational construction in societies. Sing the chances of gaining high rewards by being employed in the touristry industry has resulted in a displacement from the community ‘s traditional industry, for illustration, abandon agricultural occupations to look for employment in the touristry sector. Employment in the traditional support such as agribusiness and agriculture lessenings and accordingly groceries which were antecedently being produced locally has to be imported.
The touristry industry has besides given rise to entrepreneurial chances. Several local concerns have been developed to take advantage of the touristry industry. Hotels usually approach the local providers of groceries found in the locality of hotels. The groceries ranges from veggies, fruits, fish to chicken. Hence, locals benefit from increased gross and they can further spread out their concerns. However, merely a few benefits from these chances. Locals besides undertake other activities such as guiding services, auto hire, leasing of Sun beds, boat trips, cultural public presentations, sale of keepsakes and trades to take advantage of touristry in their country. More locals tend to prosecute themselves in the production of handcrafts. Trade Sellerss are normally seen rolling on beaches and nearby hotels to sell their merchandises. The figure of beach peddlers every bit good has increased. The latter are engaged largely in the sale of groceries.
One disadvantageous consequence of touristry development is that addition in monetary values of land, nutrient and other trade goods is noted. The monetary value additions are the consequence of the increasing demand of tourers and as such locals besides have to confront the job of rising prices. It is more dearly-won to bask leisure activities or to dine in eating houses. Monetary values of land have multiplied, particularly land located near touristry sites. In the yesteryear, monetary values of land were low-cost but with the coming of touristry, land monetary values have exceeded the Rs 1.5 million. It has even become hard to hold a secret plan for residential intents. Such inflationary state of affairss can take to irritation among occupants.
Another affair of fact is that several tourer finishs have the inclination to depend a batch on the touristry industry as they recognize touristry as the perfect attack for development. The finish ‘s scarce resources are largely invested in the touristry industry compared to other economic sectors. As such, because of their overdependence on touristry grosss, such states may confront economic crisis in instance tourer ‘s demand alterations.
The outgos incurred by authorities to develop the industry and to last competition are rather extortionate. Besides, monolithic resources are directed towards touristry development, at the disbursal of other economic activities. Besides, the resources might non be used expeditiously. However, these outgos could hold been incurred for investing in instruction and health care which would hold benefitted the whole community.
2.2.4 SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS
The wonder to cognize about the universe, its people and the different civilizations is a strong motive for travel ( Lubbe, 2003 ) . Tourism brings together people from different civilizations and Smith ( 1995 ) asserts that the interaction between host and tourers bring about the socio-cultural impacts of touristry. Besides, Yoon ( 2002:39 ) , Perdue venereal disease ( 1987 ) and A-zguc ( 2003:179 ) province that unlike the economic impacts of touristry, the societal and cultural impacts of touristry development could negatively impact occupants ‘ perceptual experiences.
Tourism is reputable for bettering criterion of life, supplying more recreational and amusement chances, promote cultural exchange, advance cultural individuality of the host country every bit good as rises consciousness for the preservation of historical and architectural memorials ( Cohen, 1984 ; Mason, 2003 ; Ratz, 2003 ) . The image of a community alterations due to touristry every bit good as the repute of the finish enhances. Tourism development in a finish consequences in the betterment of the quality of life of the occupants which influences the ego regard of occupants in a positive mode. Tourism has lead to the proviso of community installations and services which, otherwise, would non hold been developed. The proviso of better wellness attention and conveyance installations, increased recreational installations and supply of good quality merchandises are due to tourism development.
Furthermore, touristry AIDSs in the resurgence of local humanistic disciplines and trades. Tourists usually demand for merchandises of the country they visit, therefore forcing occupants to bring forth those trades which would had, otherwise, disappear. Besides, touristry allows a local community to understand the importance of its cultural and historical traditions, and encourages the saving of the local heritage. By making so, locals, hence, experiences feeling of pride in their local heritage. Riley, Ladkin & A ; Szivas ( 2002 ) added that touristry perchance will animate people to take in new profession, languages or to pick up old geniuss and imposts. Additionally, the interaction between different civilizations is seen as an chance for conveying understanding and tolerance in persons. Peoples are able to larn about different civilizations and to esteem them, besides, to extinguish any ignorance and biass, therefore ensuing in people being more tolerant of others and finally, contribute to peace.
On the other manus, Pizam and Milman ( 1986 ) stipulate that touristry can lend to societal fortunes that have the ability to convey terrible jobs in the host society. Recent researches have shown that touristry brings alterations and affect traditional household values ( Kousis 1989 ) , consequence in cultural commercialisation ( Cohen 1988 ) , increase offense rate ( Nicholls 1976 ) and give rise to harlotry ( Cohen 1988 ) and chancing ( Pizam and Pokela, 1985 ) . Furthermore, congestion, noise and traffic jams are besides the societal disadvantages that touristry development brings. Vandalism and littering every bit good are known to be the result of touristry which devolve local people ‘s quality of life. Furthermore, to run into the demand of tourers, new concerns are developed which finally replaces local concerns, for illustration, souvenir stores replaces hair barroom. Consequently, local occupant ‘s choler towards tourers will lift if these services are produced for tourers merely, which often, happens in developing states ( Ratz & A ; Puczko 2002, 141 – 142 ) . Besides, touristry development brings force per unit areas on the local community and there are struggles over the usage of resources. The presence of tourers means that local occupants have to vie with the limited resources. Besides, occupants have to set with day-to-day H2O cut while H2O is used copiously in hotels to H2O workss.
One of the chief socio-cultural impacts of touristry is the ‘demonstration consequence ‘ , where locals tend to copy the visitants. De Kadt ( 1979 ) , Du Cros ( 2001 ) and Tosun ( 2002 ) explain that, it is non needfully that direct contact will ensue in impacts, but by merely detecting the tourers and their behaviours may take to behavioural alterations on the portion of autochthonal occupants. The more economically and culturally the difference is between the host and invitee, the more likely the presentation consequence will be. Locals will detect the stuffs that the visitant possesses, their dressing manners every bit good as their feeding and imbibing wonts. The difference in material wealth may take local people to experience inferior and wish to be like the rich tourers ( Pizam & A ; Pokela, 1987 ) . Therefore, emulating the visitants, locals will seek to copy them and they besides aspire to the stuffs that tourists possess. The good impact is that locals, who desire to accomplish the same criterion of life as aliens, will seek to be more productive. On the contrary, if locals are unable to obtain the goods and lifestyle displayed by visitants, they will go defeated and later, leads to ill-will towards the tourers. Such fortunes besides provoke locals to rob tourers and commit junior-grade offenses.
Another important socio-cultural impact associated with touristry is socialization. When two civilizations are in contact for a longer period of clip consequences in exchanges and finally both civilizations unite and go the same. As Gossling ( 2000 ) observed, traditional imposts are discarded in order to follow the imposts of tourer. Therefore, the taint of civilizations brings about the eroding of cultural values and traditions. Mauritius is a graphic illustration of cultural taint where western life style has been adopted at the disbursal of traditional norms.
The commercialisation of civilizations is another phenomenon attached to touristry. Locals tend to modify their traditions to fit tourer outlooks. Pseudo events are displayed while cultural exhibitions and traditional activities are performed to delight visitants. Similarly, local merchandises such as trades, keepsakes and humanistic disciplines are modified and designed to run into client ‘s gustatory sensation, therefore taking to the loss of genuineness of the original civilizations and traditions.
2.2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
The environment is considered as an of import component for touristry. Tourism and the environment are interdependent. The environment is the context in which touristry take topographic point while gross from touristry activities is needed to protect the environment from worsening, every bit good as to pull visitants. The environment is made up of both natural and semisynthetic characteristics. The ingestion of the touristry merchandise takes topographic point in the finish countries and as such the impacts of touristry are seen in topographic points where tourers visit ( Davidson & A ; Maitland 1997, 88 ) . Both the positive and negative environmental impacts of touristry have been recognized by several surveies ( Burns & A ; Holden, 1995 ; Puczko & A ; Ratz, 2000 ) .
Tourism promotes the constitution of Parkss and natural militias. Besides, it helps in raising consciousness for the protection of the environment and urges the development of steps to protect the natural resources. Harmonizing to Doswell ( 1997 ) touristry addresses attending on of import environmental issues and encourages enterprises for the preservation and sweetening of the environment. Furthermore, touristry leads to the saving of historical edifices and memorials. Likewise, infrastructures such as route webs and telecommunication services are improved while proper waste direction systems are put in topographic point.
However, touristry can convey harm to the environment, particularly to fragile environment. There are several negative environmental impacts such as littering, pollution, overcrowding and debasement of natural resources, which are frequently highlighted. Besides, rapid development or over development brings negative alterations in the physical unity of an country. Excessive waste may be generated while noise, H2O and air pollution emerges while refuse and solid waste are disposed on unauthorised countries. The attraction of the environment is spoilt due to ungathered waste. Air pollution normally comes from transit and air conditioning units used in adjustment and catering organisations. Williams ( 1998 ) explains that noise impacts disrupts the day-to-day life of locals every bit good as compels carnal species to abandon their home ground. Besides, touristry development overtakes natural and agricultural countries and more reinforced countries normally cause ocular pollution.
Furthermore, excessively much sea activities are known to ensue in laguna pollution and to convey a disbalance in the marine life rhythm, therefore taking to the extinction of sea mammals. For case, in the past old ages, the figure of mahimahis has diminished in Mauritius. Besides, inordinate force per unit areas are put on bing substructures because of the demand to provide for both tourers and hosts. Therefore, due to over usage, wear and tear occur on the substructures. Furthermore, inappropriate and unplanned touristry development has brought emphasis on finishs, at the same clip the enlargement of touristry has lead to urbanisation. In the instance of Mauritius, Lockhart and Drakakis-Smith ( 1997 ) mentioned that “ economic success has non been achieved without environmental costs, and Port-Louis progressively suffers from traffic congestion and air pollution. The Grand-Baie country has been described as an oversaturated tourer finish with all the ill-effects of unplanned development. ”
Section 3 FRAMEWOKS TO ASSESS RRESIDENTS ‘ Percept
In this subdivision, more accent is laid in the Social Exchange Theory in measuring community ‘s perceptual experiences of touristry impacts and development. Besides, the Irridex Model ( 1975 ) and Butler ‘s Tourist Area Life rhythm ( 1980 ) are briefly discussed.
3.1. DOXEY ‘S IRRIDEX MODEL ( 1975 ) AND BUTLER ‘S TOURIST AREA LIFE
CYCLE ( 1980 )
Doxey ‘s Irridex Model ( 1975 ) was developed with the intent of explicating the relationship between the impacts of touristry development and occupants ‘ reactions. The theoretical account is a four-staged theory which shows how host ‘s attitudes towards touristry alterations as the finish develops. Residents ‘ attitudes are supposed to change from “ euphory ” , to “ apathy ” , to “ annoyance ” and so to “ hostility ” , as sensed costs surpass expected benefits. Doxey assumed that, over clip, with the increasing figure of tourers and touristry development, the host community will go hostile towards tourers. The four phases of annoyance and the resulting attitudes are explained below.
Table 2: Phases of Irridex Model
New trial is welcomed and hosts are enthusiastic
Tourists are taken for granted and anterior enthusiasm starts to decline
The increasing figure of tourers in the host country leads to irritation towards tourers. The industry has reached its impregnation point.
Residents no longer welcome tourer and the former show unfastened ill will towards tourer.
Butler ( 1980 ) created his Tourist Area Life Cycle Model with the intent of analyzing how finishs develop and turn over clip, in order to run into the altering demand of the touristry industry. The theoretical account illustrates the different phases through which tourer countries go through and they are have been identified as geographic expedition, engagement, development, consolidation, stagnancy, diminution and/or greening. Butler ( 1980 ) explains that a finish has different features in each phase. In each phase host community ‘s attitudes towards tourers and touristry besides changes. The theoretical account suggests that an country is visited by a little figure of visitants due to deficiency of entree and installations. Gradually, touristry installations are increased and it consequences in a rise in visitant ‘s figure. The country grows further due to extended selling but so visitant Numberss declines as the country reaches a threshold where farther developments can non take topographic point.
Figure1. Stages of Butler Model
Degree centigrades: UsersShivaDownloadsButler model.png
Beginning ( Butler, 1980 )
Mason and Cheyne ( 2000 ) asserts that the Doxey Irridex Model has been seen as the most effectual work which addresses the relationship between touristry development and occupants ‘ reactions while the part of the life rhythm theoretical account has been recognized in several instance surveies, as being a utile descriptive and analytic model to analyze the development of touristry ( Baum, 1998a ; Cooper and Jackson 1989 ; Hovinen 1981 ; Meyer-Arendt 1985 ; Russel and Faulkner 1998 ; Williams 1993 ) and assorted bookmans acknowledges its effectivity in finish planning. However, both theoretical accounts have received the critic of presuming a community to be homogenous and unidirectional ( Faulkner and Tideswell, 1997 ) . They assume that there is a similarity in occupants ‘ attitudes and responses toward touristry. Nevertheless, the fact is that community occupants are heterogenous ( Ap 1992 ; Ap and Crompton 1993 ; Fredline and Faulkner 2000 ) and, their perceptual experiences and attitudes differ from each other.
3.2 SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
The Social Exchange Theory was described as follows “ a general sociological theory concerned with understanding the exchange of resources between persons and groups in an interaction state of affairs ” ( Ap, 1992:668 ) . The Social Exchange Theory was developed to understand occupant ‘s perceptual experiences of touristry happening in their community and it has been recognized as an appropriate model to understand occupants ‘ perceptual experiences of touristry impacts ( Nash, 1989 ; Ap, 1990 ; Allen et Al. 1993 ) . Numerous surveies have proved that the Social Exchange Theory can be used to depict occupants ‘ perceptual experiences ‘ of and attitudes towards touristry and its impacts ( Andereck, et Al. 2005 ; Andriotis, 2005, Andriotis & A ; Vaughan, 2003 ; Ap, 1990,1992 ; Chen, 2000,2001 ; Getz, 1994 ; Gursoy, Jurowski & A ; Uysal,2002 ; Jurowski, et al.,1997 ; Kayat, 2000,2001,2002 ; Lindberg & A ; Johnson, 1997 ; McGehee, Anderect & A ; Vogt, 2002 ; McGehee & A ; Anderect, 2004 ; Nunkoo, Gursoy & A ; Juwaheer, 2010 ; Nunkoo & A ; Ramkissoon, 2010 ; Sirakaya, Teye & A ; Sonmez, 2001,2002 ; Wang & A ; Pfister, 2008 ; Yoon et Al. 2001 )
Normally, an exchange of resources will take topographic point when the host community and the tourer interact. Past researches identified that the constituents that a host community provides consist of economic, societal and environmental factors ( Pizam & A ; Milman, 1986, 1993 ; Allen et al. , 1993 ; King et. , 1993 ) . Based on the rating of the benefits and costs of providing tourer services, occupants are able to explicate their perceptual experiences consequently. Likewise, Reisinger & A ; Turner ( 2003 ) province that occupants will favor touristry harmonizing to the perceptual experience they hold about the impacts of touristry.
As said by Ap ( 1992 ) , the Social Exchange Theory indicates that persons will indulge in exchanges if ( 1 ) the ensuing benefits are valued, ( 2 ) the exchange produces valuable benefits and ( 3 ) the perceive costs do non outweigh the sensed benefits. As such, occupants are seen to nurture positive attitudes towards touristry and accordingly back up touristry development in their community ( Ap, 1992 ; Getz, 1994 ; Gursoy et al. , 2002 ; Jurowski et al. , 1997 ; Madrigal, 1993 ) . On the other manus, Ap ( 1990, 1992 ) specifies that occupants will see touristry impacts negatively whenever the exchange of resources was unequal and non in their favor. Locals are more likely to be supportive of touristry development if they benefit from touristry, while those who perceive more negative impacts will expose negative attitudes towards touristry and accordingly obstruct touristry developments. In add-on, several surveies noted that occupants who rely on touristry to gain a life, to either care for the positive impacts or volitionally accept the negative impacts of touristry on their community ( Brougham & A ; Butler, 1981 ; Milman & A ; Pizam, 1988 ; Murphy, 1983 ; Pizam, 1978 ; Rothman, 1978 ; Thomason et al. , 1979 ) .
Basically, there should be the being of a demand for an exchange to take topographic point. Then, if the sensed benefits are greater, the locals will expose more positive attitudes towards tourers and touristry. For illustration, the proviso of proper route webs and conveyance services are developments undertaken with the purpose of conveying societal benefits to the community. However there are costs such as noise and congestion associated with the developments. Therefore if the costs exceed the sensed benefits, the attitudes of locals will be given to be more negative. Furthermore, it is besides of import that the societal exchange should non be nonreversible, that it, the resources exchanged should be equal for both host and invitees.
Section 4 FACTORS AFFECTING RESIDENTS ‘ PERCEPTIONS OF
Host community ‘s perceptual experiences of and attitudes towards touristry and its impacts are non indistinguishable. Percepts and attitudes towards touristry differ among occupants within the same community. Harmonizing to legion impact surveies, local communities attitudes fluctuates and they do non keep the same attitudes ( Andriotis, Vaughan & A ; Wilkes, 1999 ; Philips, 1994 ) . Several factors have been identified which influence occupants ‘ perceptual experiences and attitudes towards touristry. The variables are discussed below.
Length of abode
Allen et Al. ( 1988 ) , Liu & A ; Var ( 1986 ) , Um & A ; Crompton ( 1997 ) have found that the more the figure of old ages the occupants has lived in the community, the more negative their attitudes towards touristry would be. Such occupant ‘s perceptual experiences will be less favorable compared to fledglings. Besides, they will be more immune towards touristry development.
Distance from tourer zones
It is believed that if an single lives far from the tourer countries, he will travel through fewer impacts from touristry activities and therefore, he will be more favorable towards the touristry industry. However, it was found that people populating farther from tourer zones perceive the impacts more negatively ( Ap, 1992 ) while Faulkner and Tideswell ( 1997 ) found that occupants populating in touristry countries are more perceptive of the negative impacts of touristry. However, it has been stated that occupants populating near tourer zones hold positive perceptual experiences of the industry.
Economic dependance on touristry
Harmonizing to Lankford and Howard ( 1994 ) , people who relied on touristry viewed touristry more positively. It is of import to observe that those who work in the touristry industry are more cognizant of the negative impacts touristry and express negative attitudes. However, people tend to back up touristry development because of their dependance on the industry. Peoples will welcome touristry development if they profit economically from the touristry industry. It is reported that occupants who have household members working in the touristry industry to perceive touristry positively. Nevertheless, the nature of the occupation will besides find the perceptual experience of the household members.
Community fond regard
Residents who have strong fond regard to their community are more concerned about the impacts compared to those who have weak sense of belonging to their community ( McCool and Martin, 1994 ) . However, Lankford and Howard ( 1994 ) stated that community fond regard did non hold considerable impact on occupants ‘ perceptual experiences.
Brougham and Butler ( 1981 ) found that old people were less favorable about touristry while immature occupants were more supportive of the touristry industry. This is possibly because the seniors has lived in the community for longer times and have experienced the impacts of touristry compared to younger people.
Gender is non seen to pull strings the perceptual experiences and attitudes of occupants. However, harmonizing to a survey of rural New Zealand, Mason and Cheyne ( 2000 ) found “ that adult females were more opposed to touristry development than work forces due to comprehend negative impacts, such as additions in traffic, noise, and offense, although admiting positive benefits, including community touristry installations and regional economic benefits ” .
Education is considered as being more important in impacting occupants ‘ perceptual experiences. Residents who are educated are intelligent about the industry and they are able to detect both the benefits that the host community receives and the costs they bear. Haralambopoulos and Pizam ( 1996 ) province that people who are extremely educated will hold positive perceptual experiences and attitudes toward touristry.
Higher degree of instruction and high income are seen to act upon perceptual experiences in the same mode. Highly educated persons tend to be the high income earners and as such the high income earners are more concerned about the impacts and are more supportive of the industry ( Haralambopoulos and Pizam, 1996 ) .
The variables act uponing occupants ‘ perceptual experiences are highlighted with assorted consequences in the literature. Harmonizing to Milman and Pizam ( 1988 ) early researches have suggested that occupants ‘ degree of support for touristry is non influenced by most socio-demographic factors. The factors were found non to hold any impact on the perceptual experiences ‘ and attitudes of occupants but current findings have shown different consequences ( Harrill, 2004 ) , that is, socio-demographic variables can act upon occupants ‘ perceptual experiences and attitudes toward touristry.