Electronic 360 degrees formats o 4 formats are

Electronic Flight Instrument System

·       Display
system that uses electronic display technology

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·       Works
together as an integrated electronic fight

·       Allows
interpretation and navigation by the pilot

·       System
includes several functions using electronic display technology

·       Includes:

o  
Display Units

§  Primary
flight display

§  Multi-function
display

§  Engine
indicating and crew alerting system (EICAS)

o  
Common inclusion

§  Cathode
ray tube (CRT)

§  Liquid
crystal displays (LCD)

o  
Replaced by EFIS

§  Electromechanical
attitude director indicator (ADI)

§  Horizontal
situation indicator (HSI)

§  The EFIS and EADI will be on both the
pilot’s and the co-pilot’s side

§  Display
controller will take both pilot’s and the co-pilot’s side inputs

EFIS installation sequence à Display à Control à Data Processor (Done in 1 unit)

Display
Units

·       Primary
flight display (PFD)

·       Multi-function
display (MFD)/ Navigation display (ND)

·       Engine
indicating and crew alerting system (EICAS)

·       EFIS
display units

·       Radio
Altimeter Decision Height Set Knob (DH)

o  
Set desired height in feet in green for DH
display

o  
Turn clockwise on the knob, increase the height

o  
Turn counter clockwise to decrease height

o  
Decision height range, OFF (-1 foot) to 2500
feet

o  
Push DH knob back after achieved desired height

o  
DH set à OFF,
DH annunciator will not display on the EADI

·       HIS
360 Degree Push-Button Selector Switch

o  
Selected 1 in 4 of 360 degrees formats

o  
4 formats are Navigation map, compass rose,
Navigation map with weather radar display and Directional gyro mode

·       Radio
Altimeter Push-Button Test switch

o  
Provides discrete output to the radio altimeter
initiating its self-test function

Primary
flight display (PFD)

·       Info
on (primary flight instruments), navigation instruments and status of flight à one display

o  
Primary flight instruments

§  Different

§  à conventional instrument

§  à format, sometimes location

·       Airspeed,
altitude indicators shown (vertical tape displays) à Appear, left / right on
primary flight display

o  
Vertical speed display, analogy presentation

o  
Turn coordination à segmented triangle near top
of altitude indicator

o  
Rate-of-turn indicator à curved line display, top of
heading / navigation instrument, lower half è PFD

·       Top of
PFD, annunciator panels

o  
3 panels blank à Aircraft at rest

o  
Source of information while in flight

o  
While at flight, values like speed and altitude
appear in magenta

o  
Shows that they are ‘commanding’

o  
Less essential data is in green

o  
Entry DH 200 reminds pilot to start retracting
flaps

§  Usually
used for landing

o  
‘F/D’ à
flight director on

o  
‘VR’ then number à rotation speed

o  
‘YD’ à yaw
dampers applied or not

·       Centre
of display

o  
Duplicates the attitude indicator

o  
Albeit with few bells whistles added

o  
Attitude shown with a symbol, varying with the
type of PFD used

·       Either
side of attitude display

o  
Known as ‘tapes’

o  
Vertical panels

o  
Left side

§  Airspeed
tape

o  
Right side

§  Altitude
tape

§  Further
to the right, rate of climb or decent

o  
Tapes spin
up or down with respect to speed and altitude

o  
In the centre of the tapes is a box

§  Which either
highlights the speed or the altitude

§  Picture
shows plane is on the ground, but speed shows 30 knots (Fig 1.1)

§  Reason
being, speed has been set as minimum in this display

§  In
flight, number will be in magenta

§  And appears
above the tape,

·       with
left showing airspeed set in flight director

·       and
right showing altitude, where the aircraft is pitching up or down

§  Decimal
under the left tape displays the Mach setting when it is being set in flight director

§  Aircraft
is in or hasn’t reach ‘command’ in either altitude or airspeed

§  Visual
indication of discrepancy shown on the left tape (Fig 1.2)

§  Green
vertical bar may be located above or below the current airspeed or altitude

§  When
an aircraft is near the ground

§  The visual
indication of the runway at the bottom of the right-hand tape

§  Also,
when the runway indicator appears, at the top of the right-hand tape, the plane
is flipped

§  Under the
artificial horizon, is a compass card

§  Magenta
bug and numeric repeater for current heading on the top left

§  The letters
MAG will show the compass magnetic heading

§  The
green number in the far right is altimeter setting

§  Slightly
to the left is the minimum descent altitude

§  2
diamonds show the position of horizontal and vertical ILS beams

§  The
indicators let the pilot fly the entire approach with just the diamonds

Electronic
horizontal situation indicator (EHSI)

·       Which
converts to Navigation display (ND)

o  
Navigational display (ND)

§  Several
modes, switched by the Flight Director

§  Shows data
on several range scales

§  VOR
gauge, ADF indicator and moving map works with the ND

§  ND
shows the flight plan display, and make sure the progress of the aircraft. (Fig
1.3)

§  The moving
map display is also being used

§  Above
the map, it shows the ground speed (GS) and true air speed (TAS) and Track

§  In Fig
1.3 is it shown that we can see that below the airspeed, at the top left, there
are 2 numbers

·       They are,
the wind direction and speed,

·       and
the arrow shows the direction visually

§  Bottom
of Fig 1.3 are the frequencies where NAV radios is tuned

§  The VOR
shows the DME distances

§  The
clutter on the display, the range is important

§  To adjust
the display is important

§  The
moving map, ND switched to show the ILS

§  Data available
in PFD, but the ND allow a very clear presentation for horizontal and vertical
glideslope data

§  Magenta
heading bug is in line with the white bar and shows the runway heading

§  Side bar
shows aircraft is off course to port

§  An alteration,
off course to starboard, needs line up with the runway

§  It is
able where the aircraft is facing, look at the white horizontal glideslope
indicator (Fig 1.4)

§  Face the
heading bug (Fig 1.4)

§  Vertical
row of dots on the right-hand side is the vertical glideslope indicator

§  Shows aircraft
too low (Fig 1.5)

 

o  
Provides Information like

§  Heading
flown

§  Heading
/ Track selected

§  Bearing
to or from navigation beacon (VOR, DME)

§  Lateral
deviation from selected track

§  Ground
speed, distance and time to go

§  Aeronautical
map

§  Weather
information

·       Direction
information

o  
à 2
different navigational aids

o  
à
heading of aircraft

·       Display
as much useful info as possible

o  
PLAN à fixed
map è input
flight plan (Includes all navigation aids / segments and airport)

o  
MAP à
aircraft è
moving map background

o  
VOR

o  
ILS modes

 

Engine
indicators and crew alerting system

·       System
è
display engine parameters and alerting crew è
system configuration or faults

o  
Found à
Boeing, Embraer, other aircraft

o  
Display engine parameters and depends à manufacturer and model

o  
Display other info, example,

§  Fuel
quantity

§  Cabin
pressure

§  Landing
gear

§  Flap /
slat position

·       Alert
crew à
aircraft configuration issues remedial action