Digital can be defined as an educational or

Digital multimedia was the important thing
nowadays. Most of the people use digital multimedia by using smartphone,
computer and tablet to find information. In education system, the use of
digital multimedia also been implement by the use of electronic textbook
(E-textbook) and electronic reference material. Most of the students especially
in higher learning institutions prefer to use internet to find sources for
their assignment or study.

This chapter will examine the definition of
each term that use for this research. The definition of each term will make the
research more clear and easy to understand. Other than that, this research will
use two theory that related with the research which is Lasswell’s model and
Uses and Gratification theory. These theories will support the research. At the
same time, review from the previous research can be as a reference for this
research. The findings and discussion from the previous research will be state
in this chapter. The research also can compare the result and findings in the
previous result with the findings that will get at the end research. The
purpose of the previous result also same as this research that focuses on the
usage of electronic textbook (e-textbook) and electronic reference materials.

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2.1. Definition of terms


2.1.1 Usage

According to the Merriam Webster (1828), usage
can be defined as a firmly established and generally accepted practice or
procedure. Usage was something that we literally do in a verbal communication
such as usage of electronic textbook (e-textbook) and electronic reference
material as a reference in learning process. Other than that, according to the
business dictionary, usage can be defines as a long established and well known
practiced in particular industry, market, trade or community that may affect or
determine the interpretation in a contract. In this context, usage of electronic
textbook can affect the style of learning process among students in higher
learning institutions.




Electronic textbook or e-textbook had same content as printed
material but different features. With the advance of technologies nowadays, the
implement from printed textbook to electronic textbook or e-textbook seem been
practically in education student especially in United States, Australia and
South Korea. According to the PC Magazine encyclopaedia, e-textbook can be
defined as an educational or instruction book in digital form. Other than that,
According to MetodickiObzori (2012), he said that e-textbook can be defined as
a digital equivalent to the printed version and most of e-book and textbooks in
digital form only take an advantage of digital media in portability and digital
recording. This is because, with use digital media, e-textbook contain more
speciality that printed material because it is contains video, sounds and




According to the Logman Website, reference can be define as a part
of something you say or write in which you mention a person or thing. When we
decide to take other person’s reference, we must mention that person to prevent
from plagiarized. Based on Imperial College London, reference is a method used
to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough and
appropriate literature search and reading. This is because, when we want to
conduct a research, we must have the appropriate sources that can support our
findings. In this context, reference material also one of the literature search
and reading among students to find information to complete their assignment.



According to Bruntland Report, students was the person which meets
the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs. Students must meet needs such as knowledge and talent for
better improvement. In this context, students in higher learning institutions
must need electronic textbook (e-textbook) and electronic reference material to
find additional sources about their studies.



In addition, according to the website, students can
be define as a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in
a school or college. Students must enrol to the education system because that
is part of their learning process.


Higher Learning Education


According to the IGI Global Website, higher learning institutions
refer to any private and public organization operating in Higher Education.
Either private or public institutions must follow the guidelines from Higher
Education for their education syllabus system to make sure all students can
follow the learning process in their country. According to the journal of the
approaches for Systematic Planning of Development Projects, higher learning
institutions was higher education comprises all post-secondary, training and
research guidance at education institutions such as universities that are
authorized as institutions of higher education by state authorities. 


Communication Theory


Uses and Gratification Theory

This research also uses Uses and Gratification Model because it is
related with the mass society theory. Mass society theory is the idea that
average people are the victims of the powerful forces of mass media. It is
defined the relationship between audience and the media they consumed.
According to the Joinson (2008), he said that Uses and Gratifications are the
motivations behind why and individual makes a media selection and the
satisfaction that the individual obtains from this choice.

This theory was related with this research which is the usage of
electronic textbook (e-textbook) and electronic reference materials among
students in higher learning institutions. This is because students can choose
either to use e-textbook and electronic reference materials or printed textbook
and printed reference materials as a media selection in their learning process
based on their satisfaction when use it. Other than that, this theory also
related with this research because technology nowadays influence society to use
digital technology like e-textbook and electronic reference materials to find
information and easy to access.


These theories also have the assumptions that related with this
research which is:

The audience is active and its media use it goal oriented.

The initiative in linking need gratification to a specific medium
choice rests with the audience member.

The media compete with other sources for need satisfaction.

People have enough self-awareness of their media use, interests and
motives to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use.

Value judgements of media contents can only be assessed by the


Review of the previous research.


According to the previous research tittle The
Evolution of electronic reference sources by Amy S.ran Epps (2004). The purpose
of this research is to provide a historical at the development of web version
of reference material and discuss what makes an easy to use and useful of
electronic handbook. This research limitation focus on the different between
electronic book aggregates such as ENGnetBASE ,Knovei and Refevex to highlight
the best features for electronic reference materials.ENGnetBASE, Knovei and
Refevex were the electronic reference or handbook that provides information
about science and technology. This research also gives the solution and
recommendation to the publisher to make an improvement towards electronic
reference materials.

The finding of this research was recommended
adoption of those elements which creates well-designed book in combination with
robust search capabilities and online presentation result in an easy-to-use and
useful electronic reference sources. 

Other than that, the second previous research
was Digital Textbook Program in Malaysia: Lesson from South Korea by M.A Hamedi
and S.M Ezaleila. This research focuses on the implementing of the digital
textbook in South Korea as learning or lesson to the Malaysia for implement the
digital textbook in the education system. This research also examine the
effectiveness of digital textbook program in Malaysia that already launched by
Ministry in Education in 2014.

The finding of this research shows that the
implementation of the using digital textbook should be planned carefully by the
government because most of the students, teachers, lectures, parents, schools,
government and other stakeholders in the education system are generally not
ready to move to digital textbook.

In addition, another research that related with
this research was the paper work from Ramesh Pandita and Shivendra Sign (2016)
that collect the trend among the institutes of higher learning in India whether
they prefer between print and electronic resources. The purpose of the study is
to conduct the study among institutes on academic libraries in higher learning
across India. This research takes time about 3 years from 2012 until 2015.
Based to the ranking list released by the Ministry of Human Resources
Development (2016), this research choose 20 leading institutes each from
universities, Institutes of Management and Institutes of Technology in India.

This research also focuses on the different use
of printed and electronic resources among students in higher learning
institution.According to the Lui (2006), he observed that there are varying
degrees of the use of electronic and print resources among the students of
different disciplines, with hybrid use being quite popular among students,
namely, both print and electronic. They also observed on the print and
electronic resources publication based on need libraries and education in

From the finding and result of the research
shows that Universities Library in India spent 43.45 per cent their budget on
print resources and 56.46 per cent on electronic resources. According to
Worstall (2016), India is one of the fastest growing economies and hols in true
about the higher education. In the years 2014, India emerged as the sixth
largest country in the world by Publishing 114,449 research articles in SCImago
indexed journals. India institutes also remain balance of use print and
electronic resources.


The function of e-book or e-textbook and electronic reference


E-books also have same function as electronic
textbook (E-textbook) and electronic reference material because it was a
reading material in electronic format. According to Connaway (2003), he defined
also can be known as a publication in format of book and to make it easy to
access and use, the utilizing internet connection are important.This study shows that electronic textbook (E-textbook) and
electronic reference materials require students to have internet to be access
and students can easily search information through digital device. Students
also can find a lot of information such as through electronic journal and
electronic article just from the keywords.

In addition, According to Rao (2003), he
defined e-book as a printed book that are
converted into electronic form and computer file format but the contains is
more advance with the images and it also can be displayed on desktop, notebook
and other portable devices. From this study, it shows that students
in higher learning institutions can easily access and search electronic
textbook (E-textbook) and electronic reference material using smartphone and
laptops. Electronic textbook (E-textbook) and electronic reference material
also still remain the formatted and content like printed material but it just
be converted to the electronic or computer format because nowadays students
always use digital device to search information


The usage of electronic material and printed materials


The advance
of technology
nowadays sees
acceptable by people. A study observed
publishing professional
preferred e-version of reference material, such
as manuals, encyclopedias,
and travel guides (Seybold,2000).A study in the
United Kingdom also found similar findings that consumers preferred e-books for
reference purpose (Guthrie, 2003). Another study was Long (2003),healsofound
that one of the advantage the use of e-textbook rather than printed book is
user can easily search particular piece of information instead to reading cover
by cover. These study show people that prefer
electronic material increasingly instead of printed material due to the advance
of technology that give the advantage to the people.

In addition, some people nowadays still prefer
to use printed material as a reference. According to the Woody (2010), he
stated that the familiarity of
medium for learning and preference not affected because of more students prefer
textbook rather than e-textbook.The main conclusion
of their study is that e-textbooks are not as comfortable to read as printed
textbooks and that design of an e-book needs to differ from that of a textbook
to provide a more constructive user experience. This study believes that some
students prefer to use printed material because it is comfortable to read by
eye to eye and easy to students to write additional notes on the printed

Furthermore, a study from Kapoor (2010), stated
that the use of print and electronic resources at Guru Gobind Sign Indraprastha
University Library and found increasingly use e-resources has not affected the
use of print resources. The author observed increase in the number of printouts
and photocopy request by the users. This study shows that some students can
make a choice to use the type of material that they want to use. The electronic
materials also not affect the producing of printed material due to the advance
of the technologies.


E-textbook and electronic reference materials convenient to use by
students in higher learning institutions


According to a report published by the Pew
Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project (2002), as cited by
Tennant and O’Reilly (2008), e-reading become
more popular and well-known among adult user because it was prevalent to them.Due to surge in popularity of tablet computers and e-book reading
devices over the past few years, e-books have become more accepted within the
general populace. This study believe that electronic reading through electronic
device can influence students in higher learning institutions to implement
their learning process by using electronic reading because every students
nowadays use Smartphone and laptops to complete their assignment and search the

Other than that, electronic material like
electronic textbook (E-textbook) and electronic reference material have a
user-friendly use to the students to read and search information. According to
Chu (2003), he said that there are a lot of
advantages by use e-textbook such as presentation flexibility,
price, convenience,
ease of keyword search, hyper linking, note sharing
and highlighting
and multimedia
integration.Compare than printed material, students must go through page by
page to find information. The electronic forms also have the button scroll that
will be useful to the students to skip page that they don’t want to read.
Lawless and Brown (2011), they assume thatby use e-learning process
instead of textbook structure, the learning tool that called hypermedia can
allows student to control their learning process and easily to specify access
an information.  By
using the electronic material, it gives the advantage to the students to easily
find the information and sources by search the key words.


The advantage of use electronic materials among students in higher
learning institutions.


According to Presky (2001), he stated that the use of devices is important for generations
that lives in digital era or media nowadays because the devices allows this
generations to creating and sharing new information and also think that by use
devices, the information can be faster in processing and delivering. This study reveals that focuses on students in higher learning
institutions in use electronic textbook in their learning process. This study
also can be significant that with the technologies nowadays, student in higher
learning institutions tend to use electronic devices as a place to search and find
reference and getting information in their learning process to make it easier.
As we know, everyone using digital media according to the advanced of
technologies nowadays, all things such as books, online portal, and magazine
and governments information will be updated thorough social media by using
digital media. In addition, the using of e-textbook is one of the new medium
for the students in higher learning institutions by using digital devices that
familiar with students nowadays instead of traditional textbook in printed

In the era of technologies, internet has become
an important medium in human life. According to Zazaleena (2005), she said thatin usage of electronic
service (E-service), internet access is important because it can be easier to
be use.The use of e-textbook that can conclude
as e-service should be introduced to the student in higher learning institution
to make sure they can keep in touch with the changing of technologies. With the
advanced of technology that keep changing, it impossible that one traditional
textbook and printed book will be stopped producing. So, it is important to the
students in higher learning institution using and been introduced to e-textbook
in their process of learning. In addition, according to Dormant Woodall (2002),
he defined that e-learning as capability of experiencing learning process by
using technology to design, deliver, select, administer, support and extend
learning process.