CHAPTER process of producing sound effect during the



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This chapter
will be
the contents of
previous researches
that have relation to the study and further elaborate and additionally support the
context or topics
that researcher wished to hold
forth in
this study. The data and
information explained were taken as resources from past dissertations, articles
and reading materials such as printed books which discusses the topics that are
related to the research title, revolving around character design. overviews
certain related literature, serves as the theoretical and contextual background
of the study. This chapter included one main topic which discuss about the
sound effect of Foley sound with one subdivision topic which is the element of
sound design of foley.


 Foley Sound

Basically, Foley is the process of
producing sound effect during the post production. This includes footsteps,
clothes rustling door opening and slamming punches hitting and more. Jack Foley
is credited with single-handedly pioneering the Idea of recording sounds in
sync with the movement on screen.  Jack
Foley worked on Stage 10 at Universal Studios for 33 years. Yet, he never
received an on-screen credit for his inventive, and sometimes cost-saving
contributions. But the art he single-handedly created in the early days of the
“talkies” was eventually named after him and serves an integral part
for many types of media ranging from, film, radio dramas and videos games

Many early sound pictures
had dialogue and music but no feeling of the noise of movement. Soon editors
started cutting together footstep sounds for actors, but would use the same
tracks over and over. Foley got the idea of projecting the moving image in a
sound stage and recording sounds in sync with the actors’ movements, using different
surfaces and an array of props. It was said that Foley could make the sound of
three men walking together using only his two feet and a cane. Sound effects
have a hidden power, affecting moviegoers in subtle ways. When something
shocking happens on screen, such as a sudden shatter of glass; You later go on
to describe the experience by recalling what you saw on the screen. As
depressing as it may seem, the job of the Foley artist is often the most
unappreciated one

The sound effect is
produced by Foley artist where they will have a studio (a specialized sound
studio), though any post production sound studio will do with a little
modification. The Foley artists can clearly see a screen which displays the
footage they are to add sound effect to, and they will perform their sound
effects while watching this screen for timing.

actions they perform can include walking, running, jostling each other, rubbing
their clothing, handling props, and breaking objects, all while closely
observing the screen to ensure their sound effect are appropriate to the
vision. This is the traditional way that has been practiced by Foley artist
since 1930’s. However, with a lot of digital technology created to make human
life become easier, does it affect the relevance of Foley and is it still being
applied in film production?



Design of Foley

Even though the technology has become
advanced compared to the technology used in 1930’s, the traditional methods of
designing sound of foley is still being used in today’s film industry. There
are several aspects that must be considered in order to create foley sound.

Sonnenschein (2002),
stated that every foley artist must have incredible observation power and
rhythm to be able to duplicate an action through sound. Their talent is
generally applied in a totally invisible manner, seeking to make something
sound as close as possible to the expected natural sound. It is very important
to have creativity to find unlikely solution in certain scene.

Plus, it is necessary to
add the element of exaggeration of the foley sound in certain genre of film
such as comedy and horror. For example, clothing being ripped on camera usually
has been prepared by the costumer to release easily in specific manner, but it
will provide no usable sound, Therefore, the foley artist will rip the cotton
rag close to the microphone to create more dramatically and louder compare to
clothing were being ripped naturally.

 In animation, exaggeration is one of 12
principle of animation which is important to claim the animation is good.
Usually, the exaggeration aspect will be applied as the secondary action of the
character. It is true that main action is important in animation but secondary
action also important as the purpose of it is to enhance the main action. It
can be seen that even in exaggeration in animation, there is an underlying
realism in the emotion/action being exaggerated to an extreme. It can be
considered that exaggeration actually stems from realism and makes an animation
arresting and appealing to the viewer (Thomas & Johnston, 2009).

After the collection of
raw sounds has been made, samplers and synthesizers can be applied as a
creative means to an effective narrative end. The use of electronic and
computer technology has become so commonplace not only in film postproduction,
but also in our daily lives, that the digital sculpting of sounds can be easily
embraced. The cost of these tools has dropped drastically in the last few years
so nearly everyone can have access, and the software has become more
user-friendly for those who are beginner.

Meanwhile, according to
Ament (2009) in her book of The Foley
Grail: The Art of Performing Sound for Film, Games, and Animation, another
aspect that are important when designing foley sound is when designing the
sound effects, backgrounds, and foley for a project, it is essential to
understand how the genre and style affect the choices and execution. It is
never just a matter of picking sounds from a library, editing them in,
performing the pedestrian foley footsteps and hand props, and adding music to
progress the scenes. The writer, director, production sound mixer, director of
photography, and picture editor have all had an influence on the shaping of the
drama, which the postproduction sound team must now support.

In retrospect, we can
analyze how foley, as well as edited effects, were used to sonically portray
the dramatic purpose of various films. Usually To begin with, the foley artist
needs to pay close attention to the production track when deciding what to use
for performing the prop sounds. With few exceptions, the foley will need to
blend into the track and sound realistic. Since production mixers also have
variations in the way they mic and record the dialogue, which affects the
clarity and timbre of the props, the artist has to pay close attention to the
style of the production mix as well as the style of the visual film itself.

Plus, it is important to
make sure that the designed foley sound must be synchronize with the on-screen
scene. Getting accurate sync in animation or in games is more of a challenge.
Whereas live-action film has a predictable rhythm to it, animation and games do
not. The timing is artificial and created for effect. It is hard to anticipate
the clothes jumping out of a dresser in Beauty
and the Beast or the various permutations of the characters’ actions in
games. It takes time and experience to master the peculiar timing issues that
arise in computer-generated and interactive formats. Often, when someone is new
to performing foley, it is hard for that artist to tell when his or her sync is
close enough. Approximate sync can seem just fine. Usually, if a cue is one
frame late, only the very trained eye can perceive it. Many can perceive it if
a cue is two frames late, and if a cue is three frames late it is obvious to
most viewers.

Besides that, Langkjær
(2010) also stated in the journal of Making
fictions sound real – On film sound, perceptual realism and genre, a foley
sound must at least have a partial likeness to the kind of sound for which it
is a substitute. This applies first and foremost to how the sound unfolds in
time but also to its timbre and frequency register. Conversely, there will
often be characteristics of a natural sound which are amplified by the use of
fake sounds. A gunshot may sound very heavy (low frequencies), steps on the
floor may sound loud and distinct, and a bundle of keys may rattle with a
delicate, treble-filled and metallic ringing sound.

These sounds certainly do
not sound like a documentary recording of, respectively, a gunshot, some steps
and a bunch of keys. It is rather that those sounds characterize these objects
and events in certain ways. The heavy gunshot becomes more powerful, the loud
and distinct steps sound more determined and the tiny metallic ringing sound
gives the keys a magic touch. A foley sound takes part in both creating and
characterizing an event.

Meanwhile, according to
Hagood (2014), the aspect of discrepancy between the temporalities of sound and
image before producing the sound effects such as foley.  It is a fact that sound can accentuate filmic
time in ways that were previously impossible. The viewer-hearer will
automatically link synchronized sound and image from disparate sources, a fact
that allows for methods such as foley sound and the manipulation and addition
of sound in postproduction. When the image is linked with the sound, the image
will become fixed in time and discontinuity becomes progression. For example, a
silent series of close-up shots of various animals and plants has no definite
location in time-space. However, when matched to the uninterrupted sound of
birds singing in garden, these images take on a sense of spatiotemporal
relatedness and order. This shows how importat sound effects in the film or
animation. Similarly, in the movie of Fight
Club (2009), the synthetic nature of the movie requires the exclusion of
foley practice from audience’s consciousness to the foley artist’s imagination
to choose suitable foley sound in the scene.

The last aspect of sound
design of foley is frottage. According to Kim (2016), foley sound itself
implies exaggerated explanation. However, it also acts as a complementary tool
of frottage, an action of individual vision that has strong iconicity.  The benefit of frottage is that it can be
utilized by people who do not have artistic backgrounds, as it has a strong
sense of target contingency and does not require professional sketching skills.
It is appropriate for art education and hands-on experience by audience because
it can be enjoyed by the general public. In making this frottage animation, we
placed the foundation in emotional universality from the beginning to the end.
Showing the work to the audience was also produced based on participation and
sharing. By
paying attention to the fact that most objects were industrial products,
acoustic direction was carried out mainly through the pre-existing foley. It
focused on stimulating the associations on bringing out certain memories from
the objects and the signs of a certain period and society from goods that have
been mass produced.