Abstract Capitalism Table of content: 1-General Overview 4

Abstract

This  research  attempts  to  highlight
 Zizek`s  notion  of
 violence  in the light of psychoanalysis in Novels Never
let me go and Remains of the day by Kazuo Ishiguro. These notions practice   of
violence, social ideology, and Marxism in this research. One of the prominent
feature to this work look at the
forces of violence in our world. Corresponding, Ishiguro`s novel wanted to show
us that people are alone and how capitalist control and deceive them and they
feel endorsement at the moment of their lives. 
This research tries to show what`s the significant message behind these
novels by taking Zizek`s notion into consideration and what kind of power cause
people be able so wild and unemotional.

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Key words: Kazuo Ishiguro, Zizek, violence, Marxism, Social ideology,
Psychoanalysis, Capitalism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of content:

1-General Overview                                      4

2-Statement of the Problem      
                    6

3-Significance of the Study                           7

4-Delimitation                                               8

5-Approach and Methodology                      8

6-Literature Review                                     11

7-Tentative Outline                                      14

8-Definition of Key Terms                          15

 

 

 

 

 

 

1-General Overview

      Kazuo Ishiguro is
British novelist, screenwriter, and short story writer. He was born in
Nagasaki, Japan; his family moved to England when he was five because of his
father was invited for research at the National Institute of oceanography. Kazuo
did not return Japan for thirty years. As matter of fact, He grew up with
strange image of his head about his country. He had little familiarity with
Japanese writing and he thought his work bear little similarity to Japanese
fiction.   He studied his education at the University of
East An Anglia and also he graduated from the University of Kent with a
bachelor’s degree in English and Philosophy. Most of his novels are set in the
past and memory. One of his famous novel Never Let Me Go is science
fiction and it`s about future.  The
Remains of the Day is set in the large country house of an English lord in
the period surrounding World War II.

       Ishiguro has written
eight novels since he started working as a full time author in all of his
novels. Several of his novels have been made into movies and he also is written
some screenplays himself. His novels often end without any sense of resolution.
The significant issue of his character in novels confront are buried in the
past and remain unresolved. In fact he ends many of his novels on note of
melancholic resignation.

     Ishiguro is one of the
most prominent Asian American writers won Nobel Prize. In 2017 he was awarded
the Nobel Prize in Literature, the Japanese-born English novelist who writes
lovely, lyrical books about trauma, repression, and survival. He said “he was
both honoured and taken completely by surprise after he was named winner of
the2017 Novel Prize. “ He was praised by Swedish Academy for novels which
uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world. He
stresses people live in political system and lost their faith and values in the
world and he hopes his writings bring up peace in difficult situations that we
live. Ishiguro is one of the celebrated contemporary fiction authors in the English-speaking
world, having received four Man Book Prize nominations and winning the 1989
award for his novel The remains of the Day in 2005 novel Never Let Me
Go was named by time as the best 
novel in list of 100 best English language novels.

         Zizek was born in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia into middle –class family. His
parents were atheists. He spent his childhood in the coastal town where he watched
many western films. As a matter of fact, he is a continental philosopher, a
senior researcher at the Institute for sociology and philosophy at the
University of Ljubljana. His main interests and works are philosophy, political
theory, cultural studies, psychoanalysis, film criticism, Marxism, Hegelianism
and theology.

         He accounts as an intellectual man that lives
in contemporary world. He has many ideas about different aspects of our life.
His character is very unpredictable, and most of the time his audiences are
being confused by his weird ideas and he almost has an idea in everything and
argues it.   One of his major work is Violence: Six
sideways Reflection.

       In this book he explores new ideas about violence and familiar us
to new ways of thinking. He mentions different types of violence: subjective
violence, objective violence or symbolic violence, systematic violence, SOS violence.
He uses occasion and history to explain violence.

      Zizek
published his first English text the sublime object of ideology, the
text referred to psychoanalysis and Hegelian idealism. His early theoretical
work became in a political way and contacting frequently in the critical
analysis of disparate forms popular figure of the academic left. He has an idea
in every arguments and he puts in everything that people discuss. He has an
individualism style, most of critical magazine memberships called him as
international influence philosophy in twentieth century. He appointed as global
thinker in 2012 by Foreign Policy.

       He
edited and translated Jacques Lacan, Sigmund Freud, and Louis Althusser. In
fact he used Lacan`s work to interpret Hegelian and Marxist philosophy. Zizek
has been a hardworking writer and many his ideas are very complicated. He
focuses on the concept of ideology, which is the most important ideas in
critical theory. In fact ideology in his perspective is central concept that
deals with in his writing. Ideology involves power and domination. Zizek
`ideology has three parts. First ideology set of ideas. Second ideology has
material component or something concrete. And finally ideology becomes part of
our social world. 

 

2-Statement of problem

In modern society, we have many intellectual theorists who have
always sought to new ways to solve problems by identifying new concepts. The
wanted to show us new ways that we can communicate and understand. One of the
most important elements we deal with is violence. The present research examines
violence in novels Never let me go and Remains of the day by Kazuo
Ishiguro. 

       Human dignity is the
foundation of human rights and one of the deficiencies of human dignity is the
issue of violence.  At first we must
explain what is violence?  Violence is
the use of physical force to put others at a disadvantages.  Violence is used as means of control
throughout the world.

        One important item
behind violence is power. In fact, power is deep layer indirectly control
violence. Power and violence work together. In pre-modern period power acted
intermittently.  That means only when
somebody did something wrong or only somebody disobeyed the law, he was capture
by those people in power.  But, in modern
period the controlling of the process of the identity formation starts from day
one. And we are going witness the continuation of the ideological moulding throughout
the whole life of the individualism. In fact with all that is said  above, 
this research wants to show us to response many questions which are in
our minds in  relation of  Zizek`s violence. The  emergence of 
investment  or  capitalist, 
and indeed civilization,  is  more  than  means 
of  preventing  violence or creating  violence and 
how do characters align  with
violence in these two novels Never let me go and Remain of the day.
        

           

 

      This
research will cover following questions by reading novels Never let me go and
Remains of the day through Zizek`s thought: 

 

1)     
How
do interpret violence of Zizek in novels Never let me go and Remains
of the day?

2)     
Which  one of  violence  that  Zizek  account  in  his  book  is
more  highlighted  in  these novels?

3)     
What
 signs  can  be  found  in  the  novels  to
 display  different  types  of  violence?

4)     
How
does capitalist penetrate in character`s mind   in perception of Zizek?

5)     
 How  does  encountered
 violence  and violence  consequence  can  be  diagnosed  with  neo-liberal
 economist  and  self-serving
 assertions  of  human
 rights?

6)     
What
is the great ideological illusions in these novels by Zizekian?

 

3-Significance of the study

Zizek`s ideology has not been applied just to violence. He is an intellectual
theorist and he almost speaks about everything he uses history, philosophy,
books, movies, and psychoanalysis to study styles of apprehensive and
disapprehenisive of violence.

   This article explores new
horizons of knowing and understanding violence in postmodern areas and how we
can relate it to novels by Kazuo Ishiguro.

 

4-Delimitation

In this research the main concepts by Zizek include violence,
capitalist in society, subjective violence, and objective violence according to
interruption. All of these ideas are taken from his book six sides of
violence .Also, two works are used here for application, which are Never
let me go and Remains of the day by Ishiguro. The research scope
is confined to these works.

 

5-Approach and Methodology

       Everything has
changed. The world around us has suffered a lot of disorder and
disorientation.  People do not know and
do not understand what happened to them in this era and how they can think in
20 century. In fact we are living in a postmodern world. Actually, postmodern
is a word used to describe major changes in the underlying ways people think—
especially the way people view truth and reality. In a postmodern world, truth
and reality are individually shaped by personal history, social class, gender,
culture, and religion. In fact, Postmodernity, as a worldview, refuses to allow
any single defining source for truth and reality. The new emphasis is on
difference, plurality and selective forms of tolerance. Postmodern thinking is
full of absurdities and inconsistencies. It is, for example, the worldview that
says no worldview exists. It demands an imposed uniformity in an effort to
resist uniformity.

     A greatly fertile and
entertaining contemporary writer, Zizek is probably one of the smartest
observer of postmodernism culture, both high and low culture. He analyzed many
authors such as Lacan, Hegel, and Marx. He has great ideas almost in everything
he enters in different aspects of our lives: culture, politic, psychology,
religion and everything you can guess. What is interesting to me he even speaks
about problems in my country in Iran.

     This research tries to
reveal the hidden dimensions of human nature by Zizek and how these hidden
dimensions of human being can go through beyond human nature. In the external
context, it will appear in a different format and be considered as violence. He
uses history, philosophy, books, movies, Lacanian psychiatry, and jokes, to
show us how these ways we see and unseen violence.it is important to be
mentioned that all the process should be analyzed through the idea of forms of
violence, capitalism, political system in famous novels by Kazuo Ishiguoro`s  Never Let Me Go and The Remains of the
day.  

      For Zizek, violence has
three forms–subjective (crime, terror), objective (racism, hate-speech,
discrimination), and systemic (the catastrophic effects of economic and
political systems)–and often one form of violence effect our ability to see
the others, raising complicated questions. And which one of violence is more
highlighted.

        The first notion we
discussed in this research is subjective violence that Zizek uses this term in
his book:

     Simon Critchley, in his
review of Violence, writes:

Our subjective outrage at the facts of violence – a suicide
bombing, a terrorist attack, the assassination of a political figure – blinds
us to the objective violence of the world, a violence where we are perpetrators
and not just innocent bystanders … The main ambition of this book is to bring
together subjective violence with the objective violence that is its underside
and precondition.

        It looks very much as though Critchley is
performing an alternative version of the foreseeable misconstrue, glossing
“subjective violence” erroneously as “our subjective outrage at the facts of
violence”. Well, Zizek does talk about outrage etc., but our outrage is said to
be precisely outrage at “subjective violence”, i.e. it really is the violence,
and not the outrage, that is “subjective”.

 We can also say that what
Zizek means by “subjective violence” is conscious (i.e. willed, deliberate or
whatever) violence as opposed to the unconscious or impersonal other
violence’s; however this same definition encompasses also the commoner usage of
subjective as an adjective meaning “all in the mind”.

       Presumably, “subjective violence” is
subjective because it is intentional, (and thus also deriving from a state of
mind), and also because it is directed at another, who is also a specific
subject, aiming to annul that subject. (“Intersubjective violence” just won’t
do: “intersubjective” is such a mealy mouth word.)

    The second notion that
will applied to the text is objective violence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

6-Literature Review

The primary work in this research is Never Let Me Go by
Kazuo Ishiguro. Never Let Me Go is a dystopian science fiction novel by
Nobel Prize-winning British author Kazuo Ishiguro. Never Let Me Go is a
metaphor for and a meditation on mortality. Learning of their fate, the clones
do not rebel. Falling in love and having much to live for, they do not rebel.
Losing pieces of their bodies to donations, they do not rebel.

    Do you see the parallels around
you? Children learn about death, and accept that they will die intellectually,
but have no knowledge of dying. Throughout life, falling in love, enriching
themselves, they smoke, drink, remain physically idle, and eat themselves into
diabetes. The increasing debility of old age, dying one cell at a time, brings
realization of the true character of death, but it is often not enough to move
them off the couch or away from the bonbons.

     In the aggregate, the
same denial and acceptance occurs. Life extension research is laughed at. Are
you aware of any academic or scientific institution of good reputation which
conducts research into immortality? The fear of dying is one of the most
powerful human instincts, but the fear of struggling against it must be equally
powerful.

    Remain of the Day is
another famous novel by Kazuo Ishiguro that it discussed in this research. I
asked myself this same question during reading. Although Miss Kenton was
definitely one to appreciate the professionalism and quality with which Mr.
Stevens conducted his work that in itself does not seem enough to fall in love
with him. Especially considering the inconsiderate and sometimes unpleasant way
in which Mr. Stevens treated her.

 

However, I also believe that Mr. Stevens does not give a good
portrayal of their relationship. Mr. Stevens’ recollections mainly focus on
their disagreements and how they grew apart. We are never shown the amiable
nature or pleasant conversation the two may have had during their daily parlor
meetings. I am convinced that Miss Kenton and Mr. Stevens actually shared some
connection during these meetings (even though Mr. Stevens will undoubtedly have
remained very professional during them). Miss Kenton could probably see the man
behind the butler in those instances, allowing her to fall in love with him.
However, since Mr. Stevens does not consider such social interaction between
them to bear any significance or relevance, he does not tell us anything about
it.

The next main work that is used as the basic reference is Kazuo
Ishiguro and Memory by Yugin Teo. Memory asserts an enigmatic influence
over us. It simultaneously soothes and unsettles us, linking us with our past
and our histories while possessing the power to control our future. The role of
memory has implications for both the individual and the collective; without
memory, we would not have a sense of who we are as individuals, and without the
provision of shared memory, a group of individuals would not have a collective
identity. The grip of memory can have an overpowering and crippling effect on
individuals, adversely affecting the paths they choose in the course of their
lifetimes. Pivotal events or incidents that have taken place in the past (and
some may appear to be deceptively insignificant at the time) often prove to
have significantly shaped the unconscious later on. These events are
exemplified by missed opportunities, regretful conversations and, upon
retrospection, poorly made decisions. Kazuo Ishiguro’s novels frequently depict
these emotive journeys of memory. The implications of such memories for
individual characters are demonstrated through feelings of profound regret and
a pervading sense of mourning. The implications of shared memory for a collective,
however, are often more subtle.

     Violence: Six Sideways
Reflections is the major
book that is the basic reference in this research by Zizek. The premise of
Zizek’s theory is that the subjective violence we see – violence with a clear
identifiable agent – is only the tip of an iceberg made up of ‘systemic’
violence, which is essentially the catastrophic consequence of the smooth
functioning of our economic and political systems. With the help of Marx,
Engels, Sartre, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Lacan, Brecht and many more, Zizek examines
the hidden causes of violence, delving into the supposed ‘divine violence’
which propels suicide bombers and the unseen ‘systemic’ violence which lies
behind outbursts, from Parisian suburbia to New Orleans. For Zizek, the
controversial truth is that sometimes doing nothing is the most violent thing
you can do. He calls for a forceful confrontation with the vacuity of today’s
democracies – using an unconventional plethora of references.

    The How to Read Lacan is famous series book by Zizek and provides a context and an
explanation that will facilitate and enrich your understanding of texts vital
to the canon. These books use excerpts from the major texts to explain
essential topics, such as Jacques Lacan’s core ideas about enjoyment, which
re-created our concept of psychoanalysis. Lacan’s motto of the ethics of
psychoanalysis involves a profound paradox. Traditionally, psychoanalysis was
expected to allow the patient to overcome the obstacles which prevented access
to “normal” sexual enjoyment; today, however, we are bombarded by
different versions of the injunction “Enjoy!” Psychoanalysis is the
only discourse in which you are allowed not to enjoy.

      Zizek believes The Sublime Object of
Ideology to be one of his best books, he
provides an analysis of “How did Marx Invent the Symptom?” in which he
compares the ways in which the notion of symptom runs through the work of Karl
Marx and Sigmund Freud. Zizek opposes any simplistic reading of the two
thinkers, who are shown to have discovered the “kernel” of meaning
concealed within the apparently unconnected “forms” of commodities
(Marx) and dreams (Freud).    The kernel
of a commodity’s content is labor and its latent meaning is the dream. Zizek
thinks it more important to ask why latent content takes a particular form. Zizek
therefore argues that according to both Freud and Marx the dream-work and
commodity-form itself require analysis.

 

7-Tentative Outline

Chapter 1: Introduction

          1.1. General Overview

         1.2. Statement of the Problem

         1.3. Significance of
the Study

         1.4. Delimitation

         1.5. Approach and
Methodology

         1.6. Literature
Review

         1.7. Tentative Outline

        1.8. Definition of
Key Terms

Chapter 2: Zizek`s Violence and Effects on Characters in Novels

        2.1. Subjective
Violence

        2.2. Objective
Violence

        2.3. Systematic
Violence

        2.4. General View:
Violence: Six Sideways

       2.5. Violence in Never
Let Me Go and The Remains of the Day

Chapter 3: Psychoanalysis Reading on Novels

           3.1. Lacanian
Reading by Perspective of Zizek

           3.2. Comparison Characters in View of
Lacan

Chapter 4: Politic and Capitalist

            4.1. Do Children
Brainwash By Ideology

            4.2. How
Capitalism Control Character `s of Novels

            4.3. Why Characters
do not Rebel

            4.4. How Social Ideology
Use of Their Properties

Chapter 5: Conclusion

           5.1. Summing Up

          5.2. Findings

          5.3. Suggestion for
Further Studies

          5.4. Bibliography

 

8. Definition of Key Terms:

Violence: is defined by the World Health Organization as “the
intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against
oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results
in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm,
maldevelopment, or deprivation”, although the group acknowledges that the
inclusion of “the use of power” in its definition expands on the
conventional understanding of the word.2 This definition involves
intentionality with the committing of the act itself, irrespective of the
outcome it produces. However, generally, anything that is excited in an
injurious or damaging way may be described as violent even if not meant to be
violence (by a person and against a person).

       Marxism: Marx believes
the bourgeoisie are going to control the whole society through a cultural
sphere or through superstructure. That is to say, the bourgeoisie injects his
own ideology through the working of superstructures.

       Ideology:  The beliefs, ideas, and values of the ruling
class, bourgeoisie that circulates in all different social classes and cultural
sphere. Ideology should act in a way that people think there is no conflict
between their own benefits and benefits of the bourgeoisie. It is duty of the
artist to uncover the kind of conflict that exist between the interests of
different classes and to show the labor, the proletariat, the hidden working
ideology.

       Capitalism: is an economic system and ideology based upon private ownership of
the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central
to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor,
voluntary exchange, a price system and competitive markets. In a capitalist
market economy, decision-making and investment are determined by the owners of
the means of production in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and
the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in
goods and services markets.