3. nervous system to generate a response. (Mclafferty,

3. The integumentary system
plays a vital role to everyday living. It’s state of health can directly affect
both external and internal structures. This means that its function can provide
diagnostic information for medical professionals to properly treat patients.

16% of the totalbody weight of an adult. The skin weighs
twice as much as the brain. (Mclafferty, Hendry, & Farley, 2012)

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Keratin a strong fibrous protein that makes up the
integumentary system and also has a protective factor that coats the cells  (Chabner, 2017)

Melanin provides the tint of our skin and hair and is based
on the amount of melanocyte cells each person has. (Chabner, 2017)



4. While there are many
functions of the skin, there are four that are of primary importance.

While the obvious is to protect our inner organs, it goes a
little more deeper than that. Our skin is so strong that it provides an
immunity against outside forces. This is includes pathogens, toxins, and excess
water or salt. (Langerhans cells) (Mclafferty, Hendry, & Farley, 2012)

Our skin produces secretions that help to regulate the
texture and temperature of the skin. We have sebaceous and sweat glands that
release different types of fluids in order to keep the skin regulated.
(Mclafferty, et al., 2012)

Without our skin, we wouldn’t be able to have a sense of
touch, temperature, or feeling. There are important nerve endings that allow
our skin to communicate with our central nervous system to generate a response.
(Mclafferty, et al., 2012)

Together with senses and secretions, this helps to regulate
our body temperature at a constant rate by dilation of blood vessels.
(Mclafferty, et al., 2012)



The basal layer is the deepest layer and is capable
of cell division. It releases cells such as melanocytes or Merkel cells
(touch), or release cells that become keratinzed. This ultimately contributes
to protection of our skin from harmful UV light and it also contributes to skin
color. (Chabner, 2017)

The stratum spinosum is where cells begin to break
down and join together to form a strong protective layer. This is where Langerhan
cells reside, which provide the immunity response of the skin. (Chabner, 2017)

The stratum granulosum is where cells begins to
flatten and completely die, causing keratin to be produced and left behind.
This also contributes to the strength and protection of the skin.

(Chabner, 2017)

The stratum lucidum is present only in thicker parts
of our bodies such as the fingers or soles of the feet and provides protective
barriers. (Chabner, 2017)

The stratum corneum contains the thickest and most
packed portion of flat cells that are bound together for skin protection. This
is the layer where most skill cells die and slough off. (Mclafferty, et al.,



The reticular layer of the dermis contains all of the
necessary nerves and vessels that provide nutrients to the dermis. (Chabner,

The papillary layer is the protection of those nerves and
vessels, which is normally made up of collagen. Collagen builds and breaks down
as we age but provides the stability and flexibility for functioning. (Chabner,2017)


11. The subcutaneous layer
helps to regulate body temperature and act as an insulator for internal
functioning. It also provides a cushioning for internal organs, and a
protective sheath from external traumas. The fat that resides here stores
energy and releases it based on the needs of the body. (Chabner, 2017)


12. The hair follicle goes as
deep as the subcutaneous layer, where it receives nutrients and a stable anchor
into the skin. (Mclafferty, et al., 2012)

Kertatin is present at the root to provide protein to the
hair and melanin is present to provide the color. (Chabner, 2017)

“Of the 5 million hairs on the body, about 100,000 are on
the head.” (Chabner, 2017)


13. The nails provide
stability and strength in order to use our fingers for movement and working
motions. Because we use our hands so much, it provides an extra amount of
protection aside from our thickened skin surfaces. (Mclafferty, et al., 2012)


15. Cutaneous lesions are
abnormalities to the normal appearance in the skin.

Nodules consist of an elevated solid lesion 1cm or more.

An ulcer consists of an open sore or membrane.

A vesicle consists of a blister or small fluid filled

(Chabner, 2017)


16. Abnormal conditions refer
to the cutaneous lesions that are a bit more chronic and possibly more
extensive treatment.

Psoriasis consists of chronically inflamed skin with
symptoms of itching, redness, and peeling.

Also known as ringworm, tinea can also occur in the nails
due to an infection by a fungus.

Gangrene consists of an injuryor disease that cause tissue
death and therefore, discoloration of the skin.

(Chabner, 2017)


17. Benign neoplasms are
abnormal tissue growths that are localized and do not metastasize.

Verruca is warts caused by a virus.

A keloid is a chronic thickening of a scar after an injury
or surgery.

A callus is a thickening of the most outer layer of the skin
due to pressure or friction.

(Chabner, 2017)


18. Basal cell carcinoma is a
tumor occurring at the level of the basal cells in the epidermis.

Squamous cell carcinoma tumors occur at the squamous cells
near the surface of the epidermis.

(Chabner, 2017)