2.4.5.1 was founded in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 8th

2.4.5.1 European Union’s
Arrangements on Migration

The
European Union have common immigration policy to managed the migrants of the
member country. EU cooperation on migration traced back to the signing of the
Schengen Convention in 1985. This convention is deals with the common external
border, short time visa policy and external border management between the
member country. The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 is intergovernmental cooperation
dealing with Justice and Home Affairs. Further, The Treaty of Amsterdam of 1999
was the turning point of the migration policy in EU, moving competence for
asylum, migrants and civil law from member states. The EU Common European
Asylum System (CEAS) in constituted of EU law came into being in 2005. It
ensures that all the member state of EU protect the rights of asylum seekers
and refugees. The 2010 Treaty of Lisbon concerned with the basic principle for
the development of the common asylum and migration policy such as solidarity
and respect for human rights. According to Article 79
of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU): ‘measures on
migration taken at the European level do not affect the right of Member States
to determine volumes of admission of third-country nationals coming from third
countries to their territory to seek work, whether employed or self-employed’.European
Union also has population movement agreement between the member countries for
which people are to work anywhere within the EU.  

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2.4.5.2
SAARC’s Arrangements on Migration

South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was founded in Dhaka, Bangladesh
in 8th December 1985. The Secretariat of SAARC is in Kathmandu,
Nepal. It is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union
of the nation’s South Asia. SAARC consist eight members nation – Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The 18th
SAARC summit was held in Kathmandu, Nepal is give importance to the migration.
The member’s countries are agreed to collaborate and cooperate on safe, orderly
and responsible management of labour migration from South Asia to ensure
safety, security and wellbeing of their migrant workers in the destination
countries outside the region. Labour Ministers of the eight SAARC countries
were attended a two days’ workshop in 2016 and emphasising on the standard of
labour migrants. Here they basically give importance to the information
regarding working conditions, working hours, leave and vacation time and social
security of workers to ensure their rights and protection. Further, they also
talked about rising of common voice between the SAARC countries on salary and
facilities given to the migrant workers abroad. Similarly, SAARC Convention on
Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution,
2002 provides a unique trafficking in women and children for prostitution and
to move forwards or repatriation issues in South Asia (Tamas, 2016). This
convention was one of good initiatives taken by the SAARC for the protection
women and children in region and this convention is also benefited the
immigrants especially the women and their children because it was seen that
most of women happen with migrant’s women and their children. They also talk
about the institutional mechanism to monitor or review and to ensure that the
needs of the victims are really being met.Apart from the SAARC arrangement,
there are some other initiatives are also taken by region to protect the rights
of the migrants and refugees like The South Asia Declaration on Refugees, 2004,
is talked about the protection of the refugees in the region. Further, A large
scale integration programme taken under the supervision of the UNHCR with UNICEF,
UNDP, WFP, Myanmar Red Cross Society, Action Centre La Faim, Bridge Asia Japan
and other NGOs on skill development, health care, education, rural
infrastructure and food for work have been undertaken (Kanitkar, 2000).

Apart from SAARC,
a meeting was held in Kathmandu on 18-22 November 1996 by the South Asian Forum
for Human Rights consider about South Asian protocol or charter on refugee,
migrants, internally displaced and stateless person. The Forum also look into
the earlier protocols on refugee and talking about the protection of refugee,
migrants, internally displaced and stateless persons. The forum believed that
it is responsibility of every state to protect the rights of each citizen, when
a displaced seek person refuge in another state than the host country should
respect the principle of non-refoulment.