1941-ish major war time confFall of grand allianceWar

1941-ish – SU, GB, USCash and carry -> lend/leaseUS sends aid to SU. they tryna stop ger and we need emGermany invades SU in 1941, US sends SU help w food/guns/etc and Stalin wants more. Wants a second front, which allies delay opening, making stalin suspicious.. He thinks the allies want SU weakened (42)Sus eased after first major war time confFall of grand allianceWar time conferencesTehran (nov 43) stalin, roose, churchillTide is turning, allies are winning. Stalin wants second frontNo agreement over handling germany after warRoose wants op overlord as a priority (d-day).. Second front in franceStalin wants to be secure.. Wants western boundary secure w poland acquiredAlso wants a SU-friendly polish government… communistPoland terr would moveThis all ensures future hostility between poland and ger, bc ger is losing terr to new polandSU demands terr seized between 1939-40 w baltic states and finlandAmericans and british reluctantly give in.. they not ready for another frontUS and Br push Stalin to enter war against Japan. He says not til Ger is defeatedUS pushes to replaces LoN.. Br and SU agreeAGREEMENT ON NEW NATIONAL ORGAGREE GER NEEDED TO BE WEAK AFTER WARYalta (feb 45) – Stalin, FDR, churchillAll three are on brink of attacking GUS controlled air, sea on Pacific front..Germany will be disarmed, demilitarized, de-Nazi-fied, and divided Temporary division.. Four zones of occupation (France,) but all of germany would still be connected despite occupying countries. The allied control commission would make the overall decisions. Stalin demands G pay SU a ton in reparations. 50% of reparations would go to SU… New front tiers of poland would be decided here too Stalin promises more democratic form of government in PolandStalin also agreed that eastern euro gov would decide who governed them in free electionsStalin also promised to enter war against Japan as soon as Germany was defeated. He demanded terr in Pacific, Br and US don’t careDiscuss future of UN.. Stalin agreed that SU would joinAgreed on 5 perm members of a security council, w each nation having power to vetoStalin demanded all 16 soviet republics have seats in general assembly. US and GB allowed threeAGREEMENT ON UNSOVIET AGREEMENT TO JOIN WAR AGAINST JAPANAGREEMENT TO PLEDGE FREE ELECTIONS THROUGHOUT EUROPEPotsdam july 45; Stalin, Truman, Clement Attlee (GB)(G had surrendered, war on pacific was still kickin’)Couldn’t agree on how to disarm, demilitarize, and denazify Decided to take care of it in your own zone of occupation. You do youTruman deals with Stalin differently than Roose… Roose would have him play nice. Truman wasn’t having it. He challenged borders of Poland from Yalta. Insists on new form of governmentHe knows abt soviet territories liberated from german controlSU doesn’t have info abt US atomic bombsUS doesn’t encourage SU to join war against JapanStalin still knows abt bomb anywaysUN becomes reality.. Treaty of san fran 45Soviet union was only comm power in the security council.. US, Br, SU, ChinaESTABLISHMENT OF UNAGREEMENT FOR IMMEDIATE PRACTICAL CONTROL OF DEFEATED GERMANYSalami tactics – how SU consolidated their newly liberated territoryIn their liberation, they’d supervise organization of governments, making sure of anti-fascism Each of the parties not socialist or communist were suppressedAll that’s left is communist coreThey taken “on vacation”, replaced by people trained by SU to be CommunistPoland.. Elections on Jan 14 1947. Campaign of murder and intimidation. Many deported to Siberia before election. During process, 247 candidates disqualified, others arrested/killed. Some taken off registersIran – US removed troops, as decided at Tehran. Some left troops because of an internal uprising. Iranian gov complained to US and GB abt thisUnder pressure from UN, SU pulls out troopsGeorge Kennan’s Long Telegram feb 46To US state dptDeals with soviet conduct and nature of soviet policySoviets have insecure move of traditional worldSoviets want to advance stalinist ideology.. Which, yeah. Clear in their liberated terrSoviet regime is cruel and repressive. But they justify it by saying the outside world is evil. US/BrSoviets are hostile to Left, but not suicidal. Use red army as a tool but don’t risk destruction of their country. Soviets are sensitive to logic of forceThey would w/draw if strong resistance was encounteredMAJOR FACTOR IN DEVELOPMENT OF POLICY OF CONTAINMENTIron Curtain Speech (see notebook)Stalin compares Churchill to Hitler, says speech is racistAfter speech, Stalin steps up propaganda.. New five year plan to make sure SU is strengthened to handle armed conflict with Western countriesTruman DoctrineSpeech Mar 12th 1947 to address CongressTruman expresses concern over Greece and TurkeyThere are movements towards civil war. Communists trying to overthrow government in both countriesTruman says US has an obligation to support free people who are resisting armed subjugation from armed outside forcesAs leader of the free world, we gotta help the countries resisting takeover by Comm. Those overthrowers are a minority and those countries experience pressure from the SU, who gives T/G war supplies, sooooWe gonna send aid and advisors mostly to Greece to preserve democracyThis is the beginning of the policy of containmentTruman was influenced by Kennan’s Long Telegram. All Soviets will understand is a showing of forceAlso moved by Churchill’s Iron Curtain SpeechMarshall PlanJan 1947 General George Marshall becomes secretary of USIts an extension of Truman DoctrineTruman didn’t think he could ask Congress for it, but a war hero like Marshall might workCommunism feeds off of desperation, so the plan is to get immediate economic help to Europe. There weren’t a lot of rules to get aidOne was that they would show the US what they were doing with the money and suppliesTo improve economy, working conditions, and create political and social stabilitySafeguard US economy bc many of the countries relied on US for goodsSU rejects this plan. It’s an example of American dollar influence.. Spend money to keep friendsSays this is establishing a european empire and US will be able to dominate Europe.Their own plan is the Molotov PlanTie economies of Eastern Europe togetherCom-con – council for mutual economic assistanceTo stimulate and control economic development of the area and support collectivization of culture and industryRed Army occupies Eastern Euro 45-47Satellite empire. All countries technically run on their own but are major tied to Communism and SU1948 – Sat states are under economic and military control. US and their allies see this as breaching of wartime agreements because Stalin promised free electionsCzechoslovakian coupCzechs express interest in getting aid from marshall planUs, gb, others have sentimental feeling towards Czecho bc they abandoned the country due to munich agreementsStalin feels that this might mean warFeb 1948, stalin pressures coalition gov in czechoForces 12 non com members to resignNow they’re all supporting comm-led gov. Moscow is pressuring and threatening armed interventionPres of czecho, eduard benes, caves to the pressure. Is also mad bc country is isolated again, west didn’t back it upTwo weeks later, several key opposition leaders found dead in suspicious circumstancesTruman references this event as czecho coupProblem is that marshall plan hadn’t been approved, so US couldn’t rush aid to resist thisThis event, though, convinces congress of the threat of comm and thus helps push marshall plan thru congressBerlin crisis of 1948Was agreed at potsdam and yalta that germany be divided into four zones of occupation, with a council, making it one economic unit. At potsdam, they couldn’t agree how to do this, so they’d just administer their own areasSoviet Union doesn’t want resurgent of united Germany to pose a threat to its united securitySU also wants G to pay reparations. France is also concerned abt G bc they have fought two wars against themDistrust between east and west increasesSoviets are allowed to take 25% of German industrial equipment from western zones. This is part of the agreement. In return, they are to provide those in those zones food and raw materialsTheyyy don’t and are secretive about what they take. So US and Br say nooo moreIn 1947, US and Br merge their zones together, violating the wartime agreementBc of SU actions, there is a meeting in London 1947, London conference of ministers. Western powers, US, Br, and Fr, draw up Constitution for new West G State. With this, need a new currency. Stalin is alright with the state, but not the currencySo he’s gonna block all ground access to BerlinHe was trying to force US, Fr, Br to give up on BerlinHis zone contains berlin(germany and berlin both divided into four zones)Berlin is 100 miles into zone, so he cuts off all land accessIf war breaks out, it’s cuz west tries to break blockade so stalin is justified in fighting backFIRST CRISIS OF COLD WARTo get people of west berlin to support him, he cuts off their supply to natural gas and electricityHe thinks they will rise up against US, Br, and Fr and force them outUSBF decide to take it by air. Deliver food, coal, and other necessities to 2.2 mil peopleSoviets couuuld shoot down flights thoughTruman and others decided USB would then have reason to atk SU thoBy 1949, clear that Stalin was failing so he ends blockadeRESULTSGermany is permanently divided. W – federal repub of g. E (soviet) – german democratic republicContinuation of four-power control in BerlinNATO is developed North-Atlantic Treaty OrgSignificant presence for US in EuroThis is big departure from policy of isolationW Germany joins NATO in 1954. This confirms Stalin’s worst fears: armed G on his borderSoviet union soon after announces Soviet Warsaw Pact.. their NATO”Atk on one of member countries is an atk on all”US feels pretty confident in ContainmentOur power rests on power of the atomic bomb, which SU doesn’t have yet. So US isn’t spending big money on the militarySU did not demobilize after WWII. They have a big conventional army. Fall of 1949 shifts the cold warPublic feels US is losing bc:SU develops their own atomic bomb 5+ years sooner than US thoughtChina falls to Comm forces of MaoWhen WWII ended in 1945 in Euro, China fights Civil War ending in 49US gives limited support to ntntlist government in china, leader of who is chiang kai shekSupport for him was limited and as china falls, there is a report circulating known as the white paper. US could not have altered outcome of Chinese Civil War. He was super unpopular in China. It was more national collapse than comm victoryAlso, Mao is somewhat indep of Moscow. China would collapse no matter whatChina has fallen. 1949/50Soviets have developed own atomic bombRed scare in USPlaced in motion by cheesehead Joseph McCarthy