the 13 public school disability categories.
According to Rosenberg, Westling, & McLeskey (2011) the thirteen
public school disability categories are as follows: autism, deaf-blindness,
deafness, emotional disturbance, hearing impairment, mental retardation,
multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, specific
learning disability, speech or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, and
visual impairment including blindness (pps.7-8).
what is meant by continuum of services in special education.
The continuum of services as related to special education can be defined
as the range of services which must be available to the students of a school
district so that they may be served in the least restrictive environment. (Rogers, Dr. Joy J, Loyola University School
of Education. A Parent’s Guide to Special
Education/Special Needs. Retrieved from http://www.disabilityrights.org/glossary.htm)
some of the duties of the special education teacher in a co-teaching situation.
As a co-teacher, the special educator will plan with the general
education teacher to make sure students participate in a meaningful manner,
he/she will help students work towards achieving IEP goals, most of the time
their roles are indistinguishable. The special education will typically provide
instruction and support for students of various backgrounds and with diverse
needs (Rosenberg, Westling, & McLeskey, 2011, p. 9).
is a self resource room different from a self-contained classroom?
The resource model is often referred to
as a “pull-out” model, indicating that students
disabilities are pulled out of the general education class for special
education instruction. In a self-contained model of instruction students with
disabilities receive all or most of their classroom instruction from special
education teachers. Even in these models, however, students with disabilities
usually have opportunities to interact with their non-disabled peers during
such activities as art, music, physical education, recess, lunch, and
assemblies. (Mastropieri, M.A.
Scruggs, T.E. 2010. What are Resource and Self- Contained
Services? Pearson Allyn Bacon
Prentice Hall. Retrieved from https://www.education.com/reference/article/what-resource-self-contained-services/
the differences between a physical therapist and an occupational therapist.
While I work
directly with OT’s and PT’s this was as interesting question to answer. As compared with Physical Therapy,
occupational therapy tends to focus more on evaluating and improving a person’s
functional abilities. An OT is more likely to perform on-site assessments
of both the home environment and work environment and give recommendations on
suitable adaptations of each to allow for a better quality of life. The
occupational therapist is trained to modifying the physical environment as well
as training the person to use assistive equipment to increase
independence. Occupational therapy
focuses more on improving life skills and incorporating adaptive tools at times
customized by the therapist. The
physical therapy profession tends to be more focused on evaluating and
diagnosing movement dysfunctions as well as treating a person’s injury itself.
While an occupational therapist will often also do diagnosis, the physical
therapist will be more likely to diagnose and treat the physical source of the
problem; the injured tissues and structures.
(Differences Between Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy. (n.d.).
Retrieved January 25, 2018, from
your own words, explain what is meant by teacher dispositions and why they are
I believe a teacher’s disposition is their
background; everything about a teacher that is brought into their classroom and
learning environment. A set of personal
beliefs, morals, values, or attitude that makes up a person and which can
influence their all areas of their life and which can hold true for many
occupations. A teacher’s disposition though,
is very important because I believe, it sets the tone for their classroom. While it can allow for openness, fairness, honesty,
and teaching the differences between a privilege and a responsibility, it can
also cloud judgement, cause a teacher to show cultural biases within their
work, or even interfere with their better personal judgement.
the term personal teacher efficacy.
Personal teacher efficacy is the extent to which teachers believe they
will be able to perform the actions that promote learning, is a key variable
predicting teacher practice and student outcomes. (Ross, J. A. (1994). The
impact of an inservice to promote cooperative learning on the stability of
teacher efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(4),
8. List and explain the six components of IDEA.
In the Smart Kids Learning
Disabilities online newsletter, the major components of IDEA are listed and
explained in the following information.
Appropriate Public Education-Under the IDEA, every child with a disability
is entitled to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). It emphasizes
special education and related services, which should be designed to meet a
child’s “unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and
independent living.” Public schools and
local school boards are responsible for ensuring that every child with a
disability receives a FAPE.
Appropriate Evaluation-The IDEA requires that schools conduct
“appropriate evaluations” of students who are suspected of having a disability. An appropriate evaluation must
be implemented by a team of knowledgeable and
trained evaluators, must utilize sound evaluation materials and procedures, and
must be administered on a non-discriminatory basis. An appropriate evaluation
must determine and make recommendations regarding a child’s eligibility for
special education services in a timely manner.
Individualized Education Plan-The Individualized Education Plan
(IEP) was established by the IDEA to help ensure every child’s access to a Free
Appropriate Public Education. The IEP is a written document, developed by an IEP team, which draws upon existing evaluation information in
order to meet a student’s unique educational needs.
Restrictive Environment-The IDEA places a strong emphasis on placement in a
general education setting. Under the IDEA, a student is guaranteed placement in the Least Restrictive Environment
(LRE) possible. Therefore, an IEP team must explore a number of
alternatives for enabling a student to participate in the general education
classroom. These may include: classroom modifications, supplemental
aids and services, alternative instructional methods, etc. If an IEP team determines that a student
cannot be satisfactorily educated in a general education setting, then the team
must make responsible efforts to determine the LRE for that student outside of
the general classroom.
Parent Participation-The IDEA has a special provision for “parent
participation in placement decisions.” Under this provision, state educational
agencies and local school boards must ensure that the parents of a child with a
disability are members of any group that makes decisions regarding the
placement and LRE of that child. Parents
have the right to equal participation in this process, and are entitled to
notification of a planned evaluation, access to planning and evaluation
materials, and involvement in all meetings regarding their child’s placement.
Additionally, parents retain the right to refuse further evaluation of their
child. Both students and parents must be invited to IEP meetings, and the IDEA
explicitly establishes a role for the parent as equal participant and decision
Procedural Safeguards-Finally, the IDEA establishes procedural safeguards
to help parents and students enforce their rights under federal law. The
primary purpose of this requirement is twofold: safeguards protect parental
access to information pertaining to placement and transition planning; and
procedures are put in place to resolve disagreements between parents and schools regarding the placement of a
student. Under the IDEA procedural
safeguards, parents have a right to review all educational records pertaining
to their child, receive notice prior to meetings about their child’s
evaluation, placement, or identification, and to obtain an Independent
Educational Evaluation (IEE) for consideration at such meetings. If disagreements arise, parents have the
right to request mediation or due process hearings with state-level education
agencies, and beyond that may appeal the decision in state or federal court. (Your
Child’s Rights: 6 Principles of IDEA. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2018, from
and explain the components of an individualized education program (IEP)
Rosenburg, Westling, and McLesky, an IEP, provided within a school district, must
consist of the following information:
1. The student’s current levels of
academic and functional development.
This section gives the child’s educational levels and how the levels
affect participation and performance in general education. At the preschool level it must tell how the
disability affects the child’s ability to participate in age appropriate
2. A statement of measurable
annual goals and benchmarks/short term objectives for those evaluated through
alternative assessments. The goals
relate to meeting the needs of the child as a result of the disability. The
must addresses the educational needs of the child as well.
3. A statement of the special
education, related services, and supplementary aids or services that will be
provided. This section lists the
modifications or supports provided in order for advancement towards goals by
the students, for their participation and progress in general education, and
participation in extracurricular or nonacademic activities with typically
4. A statement about the child’s participation
in state- or district-wide assessments of student achievement. This lists and individual modifications in
the administration the assessment in order for the child to participate.
5. The projected dates for
beginning services and modifications.
The dates reflect the services as described in number 3 and explain
their anticipated location, frequency, and duration of the service that has
been recommended and will be provided.
6. A progress measuring statement
telling how the progress will be measured and how the family will be regularly
informed of the progress. This must
state the child’s progress and the extent to which the progress is sufficient
to enable the child to achieve the goals by the end of the year.
Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 93)
and explain the two major changes that came from IDEA 2004.
While there were several major
changes that came from IDEA 2004, the were actually three major changes that I
could find. They were: Highly
qualified teachers. All special education teachers are to be
certified in special education. Individualized
education programs (IEPs). Each IEP must contain annual goals that
are measurable along with a description of how the child’s progress toward
meeting those goals will be measured and reported. Specific learning disabilities. A
new provision releases schools from the current requirement to show a severe
discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability to determine if a
child has a specific learning disability. The school or agency may use a
scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation process. The intent of the IDEA Improvement 2004 was
to ensure that a quality program is provided for all children with special
needs (Kirk et al., 2006).
(Driscoll, A., & Nagel, N. G. (n.d.). Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA). Retrieved January 26, 2018, from
11. Discuss how
the civil rights movement affected special education.
The civil rights movement had major affects on special education calling
for not only causing legislation to evolve, but inciting new litigation
protecting the rights and providing for students in special education. Beginning with Brown vs. Board of Education
which ended segregation in schools, Hoban vs. Hansen looked at the concept of
disproportionality of African Americans in lower track classes, and Larry vs.
Riles which declared IQ tests as discriminatory as a means for placing African
Americans in special education (Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 34).
the members of the IEP team.
An IEP team’s members include the following: at least one general education of the
students; at least one special education teacher of the students; a school
district representative who is knowledgeable about available service delivery
options and programs as well as the general education curriculum and related-service
availability; an evaluation specialist who can interpret the instructional
implications of the assessments; other specialists who can provide important
information(related services providers, physicians, lawyers, and advocates; and
finally most important – the parents/guardians, surrogate and/or student when
appropriate. (Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 38)
13. What are
the unique issues when suspending or expelling students with special needs.
Some unique issues when
suspending or expelling students with special needs call for administrators to
determine if a problem behavior are a function of the disability or not – and
then can only remove the student from their placement for no more than 10 days and
place them in interim alternative educational settings (Rosenburg, Westling,
& McLesky, 2011, p. 39). The discipline statute in the Individuals
with Disabilities Act of 2004 includes
the legal requirements for manifestation determinations, placement as
determined by the IEP Team, appeals, authority of the hearing officer, and
transfer of rights at the age of majority when considering suspension or
expulsion (Howey, P. Wright’s Law. What
You Need to Know about IDEA 2004:
Suspending Children with Disabilities from School)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and how it applies to school students.
Section 504, is a civil rights act that prohibits discrimination on the
basis of a disability in any program or activity that receives federal funding,
and it ensures that the same activities and services available to others are
available to those with a disability. A
504 provides school students with accommodations, related services, and
modifications in order to affect how
they learn not what they learn
(Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 66, 96).
the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and how it applies to school
students. The Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) is often referred to as the Bill of Rights for students
with disabilities and guaranteed the availability of a free and appropriate
education, due process, and individualized education plans to all students with
disabilities (Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 33).
the three-major statutory (legal) methods to address noncompliance of federal
laws by schools and school districts.
What I was able to find in response to
this question is as follows:
“The three components of the compliance monitoring system are
(1) performance review, (2) policy review, and (3) complaint management. These
three system components take place within the context of three ongoing
activities: (1) the Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (CSPD), (2)
oversight and enforcement, and (3) data design, analysis, and review.”
There are then progressive sanctions
to follow when an LEA must correct non-compliance. They are mandatory first level sanctions,
public hearing, mandatory second level sanctions, and mandatory second level
sanctions. What I was also able to find
was that under the mandatory third level sanctions there were different levels
as well. “Mandatory Third Level Sanctions, which are imposed 60 days after Level 2
sanctions if noncompliance continues, require a choice of one of the following
options: (1) transference of federal and state special education funds to a
neighboring LEA for oversight of the provision of special education in the
noncompliant district; (2) partial withholding of federal and state special
education funds while the LEA must continue to provide required services; (3)
withholding of all federal and state special education funds while the LEA must
continue to provide required services; and (4) recovery by the state of
previously awarded federal and state funds.”
P. W., & Wright, P. D. (2018). Back to School on Civil Rights. Retrieved
January 26, 2018, from http://www.wrightslaw.com/law/reports/IDEA_Compliance_5.htm)
17. Give feedback
about this assignment. Were any
questions unclear? Many of the questions seemed to reiterate information from
discussion questions. The wording of
some of the questions seemed very broad but I felt you were looking for a more
specific answer – so in this matter I wouldn’t say unclear, but it made me very
unsure of how/what to answer. I had a
challenging time answering number 10 and 16.
This is a first ever online test for online courses as well – so I was
very unsure of what to expect or how to answer.
I am hoping that I answered appropriately and accurately. I was not sure if you were looking for our
understanding of the material, but the way the items were worded it sounded
more like straight forward citations from our learning these past two weeks –
with a couple questions asking our interpretation and understanding of the