1.1 actions of the crew of the aircraft.


The training of pilots on the flight simulator is one
of the most important elements for ensuring the safe operation of the aircraft.
It allows minimizing the negative impact of the so-called human factor, that
allows to minimize the possibility of false actions of the crew of the aircraft.
The urgency of the training has a steady tendency to increase due to the fact
that the human factor continues to be the main cause of aviation events. The
table below was complied from the PlaneCrashInfo.com database, representing
1,104 accidents from 1/1/1960 to 12/31/2015, for which a definitive cause was
known. The accident planes include those with 10 or more passengers and one or
more fatalities. Military and private aircraft and helicopters were excluded.
Where there were multiple causes, the most prominent cause was used. The
category of pilot error includes those accidents in which weather or a
mechanical fault was a strong contributing factor to the pilot error.

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Table 1.1









Pilot Error




































In addition, the rapid growth of computing power of
the computer allowed to bring modern aviation simulators to such a level of
development that the training of pilots on simulators has become more effective
than preparation on a real aircraft. Such an effectiveness of aviation
simulators is due to their capabilities to ensure high intensity of training.
So, if in real flight, the crew is forced to devote considerable time to
performing routine operations that are not related to specific tasks of
training, for example, performing long flights, climbing, flying into a zone,
etc., then the special software allows the simulator instantly change flight
conditions, weather, geographic location, stop the task for parsing and
repeating, etc.

Also, on the simulator, it is possible without any
limitations to carry out working out of actions in emergency situations, some
of which are either dangerous for working out in real flight, or even their
working out in real flight is prohibited. In addition, the preparation of
pilots on AO is economically viable (despite the high cost of modern simulators
approaching the cost of the aircraft itself).



Flight Simulator (FS) is a technical tool that is widely used to enhance
the skill of aircraft operators, re-training crew members, regular inspections
of crew’s professional knowledge, and working out the interactions of the aircraft
crew during piloting, both in normal and in difficult weather conditions. The use of fs makes it possible to fundamentally
change the training system of pilots and other aviation specialists.

Airbus flight simulator

for each type of aircraft, a separate simulator is created, which is associated
with the peculiarities of flying various types of aircraft. Since airplanes are
currently used in air travel, designed several decades ago, there is also a
demand for the use of simulators for them. But because of the great moral and
physical wear of the old FS, it is virtually impossible to use them, and
therefore the task of restoring their workability is relevant now.

The simulator
is a means of ground preparation, which allows to fully model the activity of
the pilot in flight, which gives the professional thinking of the cadet a
holistic character. In practicing training, professionalism is considered
mainly from the point of view of improving the structure of executive functions
in relation to the formation of knowledge, skills and abilities. The methodical
content of the training is the development of highly automated skills and given
(normalized) actions, and pedagogical – the quality of execution. But the non-standard
decisions, which are characterized by flight activities in the process of
non-standard situations during flights, the burden on the intellectual pilot’s
function during assignment of a type of aviation.

The most
effective means of training pilots are simulators, which create in the pilot
the illusion of the management of a real airspace. Thanks to FS, the pilot
performs the training tasks he has set in the simulation departures while
improving his flying skills. The pilot can train and acquire various skills,
such as: starting engines, steering, take-off and landing, studying onboard
systems, etc. With the help of simulation flights, you can create different
conditions of the environment without danger to the pilot. It also increases
the effectiveness of the training and after a certain training cycle, the pilot
can operate a real airplane for his task.

All available
aviation simulators can be divided into two main classes – program simulators,
training complexes. According to modern terminology, aviation simulators with a
stationary cabin are referred to as air simulators 2. Air simulator – flight
simulator on any aircraft. FSs substantially differ in design depending on the
destination: from the mechanical and electronic equipment with the dashboard
and the front part of the fuselage, designed to teach pilots, to computer
programs personal computers. A large number of software simulators is
characterized by low realism, because it does not allow the use of all senses
and is used for gaming purposes for personal computers 1.

simulators are divided into procedural and complex. The procedural aviation
simulator is intended for the training of the flight crew. It is a technical
learning tool that enables you to develop the skills and abilities required in
real conditions of the pilot. It has the following basic properties: simulation
of the individual fragments of the conditions of the actual activity of the
pilot; possibility of working out of separate operations and actions of real
work of the pilot with the equipment of the cabin; the possibility of objective
control over the results of all operations that are practiced on the simulator,
and the actions of the instructor.

simulators provide training for specific actions, such as airplane, engine and
aviation full-time systems, radio-electronic equipment, combat applications,
etc. Typically, they include display simulators of instrument boards and
simulators of control levers, which, according to their limiting displacements,
loading characteristics and tactile sensations, are realistic at all stages and
modes of flight. Some of the devices directly related to the operation are

simulators are intended for training by the crew of the procedures for
preparing and performing the flight. In simulators of such appointment, panels,
devices and controls are usually simulated using touch-sensitive monitors. For
convenience, individual panels and controls can be presented in the form of
full-size layouts. Additionally, depending on the amount of tasks performed,
the simulators can be divided into the following types 3:

1. Functional
(primary) cabins, which represent mock-ups of means of displaying information,
management bodies. They provide an opportunity to deepen the knowledge of cadet
pilots from aerodynamics and aviation engineering, to develop the order of the
pilot during the operation of a combat aircraft. Primary aviation simulators
are usually the simplest ones, which are often made by the forces of aviation
parts and educational institutions. Booths and mockups can be considered as
functional simulators.

Specialized simulators are intended for the training of pilot cadets for the
implementation of specific specific elements of activity, for the development
of individual psychological qualities and skills in special cases in flight.

comprehensive aviation simulator implements training similar to a procedural
simulator, but at the most advanced level and possesses such basic properties
as maximum approximation of the conditions of activity of the pilot on the
simulator to the conditions of real flight activity; ensuring that the
simulator runs on the whole of all tasks of the actual activity of the pilot,
which he performs in flight; Ensuring the possibility of objective control over
the results of performing all tasks that are being worked out.

simulator – the highest level of technical training equipment for flying
training, as well as an effective means of maintaining the training of pilots.
The comprehensive simulator recreates the real interior of the cabin and gives
the opportunity to work out all the modes of operation of the aircraft without
exception. Simulators of the highest qualification level have a complete set of
tools that provide an adequate effect on all channels of perception of the



The perception of the physical factors of flight refers to the sensory
activity of the pilot, which participates as the primary elements that perceive
motion information – various human receptors, and corresponding areas of the
brain. As you know,
the act of piloting a result of various pilot processing information it
receives in the cockpit.

All parts of the aircraft are accompanied by sound information of different
frequencies and sound vibrations. Due to
this sound information, the pilot knows if the parts of the airplane are
functioning correctly. In order
to teach pilots this perception and make appropriate decisions and use
simulators of noise.

Sound imitator
(SI) – is an integral part of any modern integrated aviation
simulator that provides a simulation of a real surround sound for
pilots during training flights. realization of the simulator and
verification of the adequacy of the sound noise complex of the real aircraft.

Such simulators
are usually designed as hardware or software-hardware systems with controlled
generators that create noise from various sources, which are characteristic of
real flight and are controlled by the parameters of the training
flight. Creating and adjusting noise generators requires special sound
recordings on real objects, complex spectral analysis and the development of
noise synthesizers.

Now, each FS has in its
composition quite powerful sound systems that allow you to play back existing
sounds and provide them with various effects that can reproduce a fairly real

For the pilot
sound is a valuable source of information on the state machinery, electro-
and radio equipment, touched the runway and the like. Modern
simulators noise for professional commercial simulators are software and
hardware that form and reproduce the sound of the aircraft in all flight
conditions required adequacy and quality. The process of creating sound imitator
of flight simulator – a very complex and expensive process that requires study
and analysis of aircraft sound – the object of imitation in different modes,
some noise synthesis simulators, selection dependencies performance
of their flight parameters, technical critical situation.

comparing modern sound imitators is difficult enough. Usually, all SI for FS
come in one set, and they are quite expensive. But despite this, modern SI
can be distinguished by the following methods for creating sounds:

–            Synthesis
of noise using analogue means;

–            Sound
recording on a real airplane;

–            Digital
synthesis based on assets of CM in real time.

The simulator,
based on the synthesis of noise using analog means, is used in most modern
simulators, which consists in the electrical synthesis of analog signals with
specified frequency and volume parameters that are converted into
sound. These imitators have the disadvantage that they are quite
cumbersome and non-universal.

The next
method consists in recording the sounds of a real aircraft in
different operating modes and their subsequent analysis to isolate external
noise sources and their characteristics. Therefore, when accessing the aircraft, the developer has the opportunity
to study the data sources of noise, performing various actions to control the
mechanisms of the aircraft and record the characteristics of the sound.

Model  surround sound is usually
presented as a set of additive noises, each of which is created by a
separate source (aircraft mechanism or environmental factors):


where  – Model single noise

For each
model   it is necessary to describe
the noise characteristic and its dependence on the set of parameters of the
source of noise.   Noise control in such a model can be
represented by a function that specifies changes in the sound parameters  from the input parameters of
its source  :


When constructing
a functional model  Conveniently
lead to many independent functions, each of which describes a change in one
parameter output depending on the set of input:

Most implementations
of simulators have similar architecture (Fig. 1 .1), which includes a
set of controlled noise generator, the output signals are summed, amplified and
fed to speakers installed in the cockpit simulator. Simulation play different number
of channels (mono, stereo, quad and more) and the distribution of
functions between hardware and software components. For each individual source
of noise according to the characteristics of the developed model for
it    is selected
and implemented a noise generator of the corresponding type and control
dependence.   Selection and configuration of generators require
significant costs.


Fig. 1.1. Traditional
structure of sound imitator

The ultimate
subjective assessment of the sound environment’s adequacy can only be given by
an experienced pilot simulated aircraft.   In the early stages
of creating an imitator, developers use their own subjective evaluation,
realized by comparing the sound of synthesized noise with recorded samples.

But this method
has a negative side. Such an imitator is long enough to create due to the
fact that very large situations are subject to recording and some of these
situations play dangerous life. Also, the work with the recording will
take quite a lot of time and the necessary professional equipment, to avoid
noise from the audio equipment. Due to the large number audio
records, it is difficult to find an option sound in real time. The
lack of full access to the real PS greatly slows the creation and study of sounds,
as it is a real source of sound of the aircraft.

The idea of
playing airborne sound recordings to simulate the sound environment is not new,
but for professional simulators it is not designed and practically not used due
to various reasons, in particular because advanced digital reproduction and
sound management technologies have become available much later than the
qualitative analog noise generation.   In the
latter proposed method uses digital players samples were isolated from
previously received records sounds aircraft. To simulate noise, these
sounds are played by adjusting the sound parameters provided by the CM.

In general,
getting a sound sample is based on the selection of fragments with minimal
noise impact. The first problem in selecting samples is the division of
noise from different sources and their identification.   The
second problem is the lack of binding of noise characteristics to the
parameters of the work of the sources.   The third problem is
the lack of information about the absolute levels of noise in the cabin, since
most of the available recording devices do not record
them.   Included mechanisms for automatically adjusting the
level of recording further complicate this problem, making the relative noise
levels less reliable.

The developer must
identify individual noises and determine their
parameters.   Identify noise in given case can be
subjective (“listening”) and confirm their identity by spectral
analysis and comparison of options spectrum noise components with predictable
modes of the aircraft.   Next, for the identified sound, you
need to obtain a sample of acceptable quality by selecting and clipping the
recording fragment.   The task is
usually complicated by other sources of noise aircraft, outside noise
(talking pilots click toggle switches in the cockpit, external
noise, etc.).  

The sound
environment model with the use of regulated samples differs from the usual one,
including the fact that it cannot use independent models for each noise, due to
the difficulty of selecting “pure” samples that contain sounds only
from their sources of noise.   The model of a particular source
of noise, as a rule, depends on models of other noise:


Where  – the model being considered

 – noise parameters

 – noise source parameters

 – many other models
of noise.

This problem is
solved by choosing maximum independent samples and considering dependencies that
are left, the choice of control options.   Listening and
analysis of records the developer finds areas where the noise of this source is
least “clogged” by other noises.   Next, you
need to correlate the selected parameters of noise from its
source.   This can be done using the indicator information in
the cab that got included in a video recording, and in
its absence – using spectral analysis and knowledge of the mechanisms operating
modes of the aircraft in various flight conditions. The problem of the absence
of data on the absolute levels of noise in the cabin can be solved only with
the use of expert assessment.

The structure of
the proposed simulator is similar to a traditional and is controlled many
players, output signals of
which are summarizes (Figure 1.2). Playback can be adjusted in speed to create
the effect of changing the frequency of the noise in volume, as well as several
additional options such as side-effects, echo, etc. The playback mode can be
one-off (for single-time sounds, such as output noise / chassis cleaning) and
loop (for continuous, such as turbine or screw noise).   The
connection between the adjustable parameters of the players and the simulated
parameters of the aircraft is carried out by special
converters.   Each converter can implement a function of one parameter
of the player from one or more parameters of the
model.   Typically, playback speed is a function of one
parameter.   The volume of noise can depend on several
parameters and can be represented by the product of functions from one


Where – playback volume;

– maximum noise level;

 – normalized
parameter change function  from the
parameter  models.

Fig. 1. 2. The
structure of an adjustable player – an element of the simulator of noise

This is due to the
fact that the dependence of the volume of the sound of the main mechanisms of
their parameters has a multiplicative nature. For example, the volume of noise
propeller multiplicatively dependent on the frequency of its speed
and pitch (angle of rotation of the blades). The volume of the touching of the
runway wheel – from horizontal and vertical landing speeds. In this case the
function of regulating player option can be implemented as standardized
work approximating functions defined for each parameter. This
allows us to create a convenient tool for describing the control functions in
the form of a set of selected parameters of the model of the aircraft  and functions  calculated by piecewise linear function
(Fig. 1.2).